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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
 
     
(Mark One)    
þ
  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010
or
o
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the transition period from          to          
 
Commission File Number 1-13232
Apartment Investment and Management Company
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
     
Maryland
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  84-1259577
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
     
4582 South Ulster Street Parkway, Suite 1100
Denver, Colorado
(Address of principal executive offices)
  80237
(Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (303) 757-8101
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
     
Title of Each Class   Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
 
Class A Common Stock
  New York Stock Exchange
Class T Cumulative Preferred Stock
  New York Stock Exchange
Class U Cumulative Preferred Stock
  New York Stock Exchange
Class V Cumulative Preferred Stock
  New York Stock Exchange
Class Y Cumulative Preferred Stock
  New York Stock Exchange
 
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: none
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined by Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes þ     No o
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes o     No þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes þ     No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).  Yes þ     No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer þ Accelerated filer o Non-accelerated filer o Smaller reporting company o
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes o     No þ
 
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $2.2 billion as of June 30, 2010. As of February 22, 2011, there were 118,131,892 shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding.
 
 
 
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be issued in conjunction with the registrant’s annual meeting of stockholders to be held April 26, 2011, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report.
 


 

 
APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2010
 
                 
Item       Page
 
  1.     Business     2  
  1A.     Risk Factors     8  
  1B.     Unresolved Staff Comments     15  
  2.     Properties     16  
  3.     Legal Proceedings     17  
  4.     (Removed and Reserved)     17  
 
  5.     Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities     18  
  6.     Selected Financial Data     20  
  7.     Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations     21  
  7A.     Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk     42  
  8.     Financial Statements and Supplementary Data     43  
  9.     Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure     43  
  9A.     Controls and Procedures     43  
  9B.     Other Information     46  
 
  10.     Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance     46  
  11.     Executive Compensation     46  
  12.     Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters     46  
  13.     Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence     46  
  14.     Principal Accountant Fees and Services     46  
 
  15.     Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules     47  
 EX-21.1
 EX-23.1
 EX-31.1
 EX-31.2
 EX-32.1
 EX-32.2
 EX-99.1
 EX-101 INSTANCE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 SCHEMA DOCUMENT
 EX-101 CALCULATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 LABELS LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 PRESENTATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 DEFINITION LINKBASE DOCUMENT


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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a “safe harbor” for forward-looking statements in certain circumstances. Certain information included in this Annual Report contains or may contain information that is forward-looking within the meaning of the federal securities laws, including, without limitation, statements regarding our ability to maintain current or meet projected occupancy, rental rates and property operating results and the effect of acquisitions and redevelopments. Actual results may differ materially from those described in these forward-looking statements and, in addition, will be affected by a variety of risks and factors, some of which are beyond our control, including, without limitation: financing risks, including the availability and cost of financing and the risk that our cash flows from operations may be insufficient to meet required payments of principal and interest; earnings may not be sufficient to maintain compliance with debt covenants; real estate risks, including fluctuations in real estate values and the general economic climate in the markets in which we operate and competition for residents in such markets; national and local economic conditions, including the pace of job growth and the level of unemployment; the terms of governmental regulations that affect us and interpretations of those regulations; the competitive environment in which we operate; the timing of acquisitions and dispositions; insurance risk, including the cost of insurance; natural disasters and severe weather such as hurricanes; litigation, including costs associated with prosecuting or defending claims and any adverse outcomes; energy costs; and possible environmental liabilities, including costs, fines or penalties that may be incurred due to necessary remediation of contamination of properties presently owned or previously owned by us. In addition, our current and continuing qualification as a real estate investment trust involves the application of highly technical and complex provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and depends on our ability to meet the various requirements imposed by the Internal Revenue Code, through actual operating results, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Readers should carefully review our financial statements and the notes thereto, as well as the section entitled “Risk Factors” described in Item 1A of this Annual Report and the other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
PART I
 
Item 1.   Business
 
The Company
 
Apartment Investment and Management Company, or Aimco, is a Maryland corporation incorporated on January 10, 1994. We are a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust, or REIT. Our principal financial objective is to provide predictable and attractive returns to our stockholders. Our business plan to achieve this objective is described in the Business Overview section.
 
Through our wholly-owned subsidiaries, AIMCO-GP, Inc. and AIMCO-LP Trust, we own a majority of the ownership interests in AIMCO Properties, L.P., which we refer to as the Aimco Operating Partnership. As of December 31, 2010, we held an interest of approximately 93% in the common partnership units and equivalents of the Aimco Operating Partnership. We conduct substantially all of our business and own substantially all of our assets through the Aimco Operating Partnership. Interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership that are held by limited partners other than Aimco are referred to as “OP Units.” OP Units include common partnership units, high performance partnership units and partnership preferred units, which we refer to as common OP Units, High Performance Units and preferred OP Units, respectively. At December 31, 2010, 117,642,872 shares of our Common Stock were outstanding and the Aimco Operating Partnership had 8,470,013 common partnership units and equivalents outstanding for a combined total of 126,112,885 shares of Common Stock, common partnership units and equivalents outstanding.
 
Since our initial public offering in July 1994, we have completed numerous transactions, including purchases of properties and interests in entities that own or manage properties, expanding our portfolio of owned or managed properties from 132 properties with 29,343 apartment units to a peak of over 2,100 properties with 379,000 apartment units. As of December 31, 2010, our portfolio of owned and/or managed properties consists of 768 properties with 122,694 apartment units.


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Except as the context otherwise requires, “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” refer to Aimco, the Aimco Operating Partnership and their consolidated entities, collectively. As used herein, and except where the context otherwise requires, “partnership” refers to a limited partnership or a limited liability company and “partner” refers to a limited partner in a limited partnership or a member in a limited liability company.
 
Business Overview
 
Our principal financial objective is to provide predictable and attractive returns to our stockholders. Our business plan to achieve this objective is to:
 
  •  own and operate a broadly diversified portfolio of primarily class “B/B+” assets with properties concentrated in the 20 largest markets in the United States (as measured by total apartment value, which is the estimated total market value of apartment properties in a particular market);
 
  •  improve our portfolio by selling assets with lower projected returns and reinvesting those proceeds through the purchase of new assets or additional investment in existing assets in our portfolio, including increased ownership or redevelopment; and
 
  •  provide financial leverage primarily by the use of non-recourse, long-dated, fixed-rate property debt and perpetual preferred equity.
 
Our business is organized around two core activities: Property Operations and Portfolio Management. We continue to simplify our business, including de-emphasizing transactional based activity fees and a corresponding reduction in personnel involved in those activities. Our core activities, along with our financial strategy, are described in more detail below.
 
Property Operations
 
Our owned real estate portfolio is comprised of two business components: conventional and affordable property operations, which also comprise our reportable segments. Our conventional property operations consist of market-rate apartments with rents paid by the resident and included 219 properties with 68,972 units as of December 31, 2010. Our affordable property operations consist of apartments with rents that are generally paid, in whole or part, by a government agency and consisted of 228 properties with 26,540 units as of December 31, 2010. Affordable properties tend to have relatively more stable rents and higher occupancy due to government rent payments and thus are much less affected by market fluctuations. Our conventional and affordable properties generated 87% and 13%, respectively, of our proportionate property net operating income (as defined in Item 7) during the year ended December 31, 2010. For the three months ended December 31, 2010, our conventional portfolio monthly rents averaged $1,052 and provided 62% operating margins. These average rents increased about 1% from average rents of $1,042 for the three months ended December 31, 2009.
 
Our property operations currently are organized into five geographic areas. To manage our nationwide portfolio more efficiently and to increase the benefits from our local management expertise, we have given direct responsibility for operations within each area to an area operations leader with regular senior management reviews. To enable the area operations leaders to focus on sales and service, as well as to improve financial control and budgeting, we have dedicated an area financial officer to support each area operations leader, and with the exception of routine maintenance, our specialized Construction Services group manages all on-site capital spending, thus reducing the need for the area operations leaders to spend time on oversight of construction projects.
 
We seek to improve our oversight of property operations by: upgrading systems; standardizing business processes, operational measurements and internal reporting; and enhancing financial controls over field operations. Our objectives are to focus on the areas discussed below:
 
  •  Customer Service.  Our operating culture is focused on our residents. Our goal is to provide our residents with consistent service in clean, safe and attractive communities. We evaluate our performance through a customer satisfaction tracking system. In addition, we emphasize the quality of our on-site employees through recruiting, training and retention programs, which we believe contributes to improved customer service and leads to increased occupancy rates and enhanced operational performance.


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  •  Resident Selection and Retention.  In apartment properties, neighbors are a meaningful part of the product, together with the location of the property and the physical quality of the apartment units. Part of our property operations strategy is to focus on resident acquisition and retention — attracting and retaining credit-worthy residents who are good neighbors. We have structured goals and coaching for all of our sales personnel, a tracking system for inquiries and a standardized renewal communication program. We have standardized residential financial stability requirements and have policies and monitoring practices to maintain our resident quality.
 
  •  Revenue Management.  For our conventional properties, we have a centralized revenue management system that leverages people, processes and technology to work in partnership with our area operational management teams to develop rental rate pricing. We seek to increase revenue and net operating income by optimizing the balance between rental and occupancy rates, as well as taking into consideration the cost of preparing an apartment unit for a new tenant. We are also focused on careful measurements of on-site operations, as we believe that timely and accurate collection of property performance and resident profile data will enable us to maximize revenue through better property management and leasing decisions, as well as the automation of certain aspects of on-site operations, to enable our on-site employees to focus more of their time on customer service. We have standardized policies for new and renewal pricing with timely data and analyses by floor-plan, thereby enabling us to respond quickly to changing supply and demand for our product and maximize rental revenue.
 
  •  Controlling Expenses.  Cost controls are accomplished by local focus at the area level; taking advantage of economies of scale at the corporate level; and through electronic procurement.
 
  •  Ancillary Services.  We believe that our ownership and management of properties provide us with unique access to a customer base that allows us to provide additional services and thereby increase occupancy and rents, while also generating incremental revenue. We currently provide cable television, telephone services, appliance rental, and carport, garage and storage space rental at certain properties.
 
  •  Maintaining and Improving Property Quality.  We believe that the physical condition and amenities of our apartment properties are important factors in our ability to maintain and increase rental rates. In 2010, for properties included in continuing operations, we invested $74.7 million, or $848 per owned apartment unit, in Capital Replacements, which represent the share of additions that are deemed to replace the consumed portion of acquired capital assets. Additionally, for properties included in continuing operations, we invested $45.4 million, or $515 per owned apartment unit, in Capital Improvements, which are non-redevelopment capital additions that are made to enhance the value, profitability or useful life of an asset from its original purchase condition.
 
Portfolio Management
 
Portfolio Management involves the ongoing allocation of investment capital to meet our geographic and product type goals. We target geographic balance in Aimco’s diversified portfolio in order to optimize risk-adjusted returns and to avoid the risk of undue concentration in any particular market. We also seek to balance the portfolio by product type, with both high quality properties in excellent locations and also high land value properties that support redevelopment activities.
 
Our geographic allocation strategy focuses on the 20 largest markets in the United States (as measured by total apartment value) to reduce volatility in and our dependence on particular areas of the country. We believe these markets are deep, relatively liquid and possess desirable long-term growth characteristics. They are primarily coastal markets, and also include a number of Sun Belt cities and Chicago, Illinois. We may also invest in other markets on an opportunistic basis. We expect that increased geographic focus will also add to our investment knowledge and increase operating efficiencies based on local economies of scale.
 
Our portfolio strategy also focuses on asset type and quality. Our target allocation of capital to conventional and affordable properties is 90% and 10%, respectively, of our Net Asset Value, which is the estimated fair value of our assets, net of liabilities and preferred equity. For conventional assets, we focus on the ownership of primarily B/B+ assets. We measure conventional property asset quality based on average rents compared to local market


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average rents as reported by a third-party provider of commercial real estate performance and analysis, with A-quality assets earning rents greater than 125% of local market average, B-quality assets earning rents 90% to 125% of local market average and C-quality assets earning rents less than 90% of local market average.
 
Portfolio management involves strategic portfolio and capital allocation decisions such as transactions to buy or sell properties, or modify our ownership interest in properties, including the use of partnerships and joint ventures, or to increase our investment in existing properties through redevelopment. We generally seek to sell assets with lower projected returns, which are often in markets less desirable than our target markets, and reinvest those proceeds through the purchase of new assets or additional investment in existing assets in our portfolio. The purpose of these transactions is to adjust our investments to reflect decisions regarding target allocations to geographic markets and between conventional and affordable properties.
 
We believe redevelopment of certain properties in superior locations provides advantages over ground-up development, enabling us to generate rents comparable to new properties with lower financial risk, in less time and with reduced delays associated with governmental permits and authorizations. We believe redevelopment also provides superior risk adjusted returns with lower volatility compared to ground-up development. Redevelopment work may also include seeking entitlements from local governments, which enhance the value of our existing portfolio by increasing density, that is, the right to add residential units to a site. We have historically undertaken a range of redevelopment projects: from those in which a substantial number of all available units are vacated for significant renovations to the property, to those in which there is significant renovation, such as exteriors, common areas or unit improvements, typically done upon lease expirations without the need to vacate units on any wholesale or substantial basis. We have a specialized Redevelopment and Construction Services group to oversee these projects.
 
During 2010, we increased our allocation of capital to our target markets by disposing of 24 conventional properties located primarily outside of our target markets or in less desirable locations within our target markets and by investing $26.4 million in redevelopment of conventional properties included in continuing operations. As of December 31, 2010, our conventional portfolio included 219 properties with 68,972 units in 38 markets. As of December 31, 2010, conventional properties comprised 88% of our Net Asset Value and conventional properties in our target markets comprised 88% of the Net Asset Value attributable to our conventional properties. Our top five markets by net operating income contribution include the metropolitan areas of Washington, D.C.; Los Angeles, California; Chicago, Illinois; Boston, Massachusetts; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
 
During 2010, we invested $3.1 million in redevelopment of affordable properties included in continuing operations, funded primarily by proceeds from the sale of tax credits to institutional partners. As with conventional properties, we also seek to dispose of affordable properties that are inconsistent with our long-term investment and operating strategies. During 2010, we sold 27 properties from our affordable portfolio. As of December 31, 2010, our affordable portfolio included 228 properties with 26,540 units and our affordable properties comprised 12% of our Net Asset Value.
 
Financial Strategy
 
Our leverage strategy seeks to balance increasing financial returns with the risks inherent with leverage. At December 31, 2010, approximately 86% of our leverage consisted of property-level, non-recourse, long-dated, fixed-rate, amortizing debt and 13% consisted of perpetual preferred equity, a combination which helps to limit our refunding and re-pricing risk. At December 31, 2010, we had no outstanding corporate level debt. Our leverage strategy limits refunding risk on our property-level debt. At December 31, 2010, the weighted average maturity of our property-level debt was 7.8 years, with 2% of our debt maturing in 2011, less than 9% maturing in 2012, and on average approximately 7% maturing in each of 2013, 2014 and 2015. Long duration, fixed-rate liabilities provide a hedge against increases in interest rates and inflation. Approximately 91% of our property-level debt is fixed-rate. Of the $104.9 million of property debt maturing during 2011, we completed the refinance of $79.4 million in February 2011, and we are focusing on refinancing our property debt maturing during 2012 through 2015 to extend maturities and lock in current low interest rates.
 
During 2010, we repaid the remaining $90.0 million on our term loan. We also expanded our credit facility from $180.0 million to $300.0 million, providing additional liquidity for short-term or unexpected cash


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requirements. As of December 31, 2010, we had the capacity to borrow $260.3 million pursuant to our credit facility (after giving effect to $39.7 million outstanding for undrawn letters of credit). The revolving credit facility matures May 1, 2013, and may be extended for an additional year, subject to certain conditions.
 
Competition
 
In attracting and retaining residents to occupy our properties we compete with numerous other housing alternatives. Our properties compete directly with other rental apartments as well as condominiums and single-family homes that are available for rent or purchase in the markets in which our properties are located. Principal factors of competition include rent or price charged, attractiveness of the location and property and quality and breadth of services. The number of competitive properties relative to demand in a particular area has a material effect on our ability to lease apartment units at our properties and on the rents we charge. In certain markets there exists an oversupply of single family homes and condominiums and a reduction of households, both of which affect the pricing and occupancy of our rental apartments.
 
We also compete with other real estate investors, including other apartment REITs, pension and investment funds, partnerships and investment companies in acquiring, redeveloping, managing, obtaining financing for and disposing of apartment properties. This competition affects our ability to: acquire properties we want to add to our portfolio and the price that we pay in such acquisitions; finance or refinance properties in our portfolio and the cost of such financing; and dispose of properties we no longer desire to retain in our portfolio and the timing and price for which we dispose of such properties.
 
Taxation
 
We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, which we refer to as the Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 1994, and intend to continue to operate in such a manner. Our current and continuing qualification as a REIT depends on our ability to meet the various requirements imposed by the Code, which relate to organizational structure, distribution levels, diversity of stock ownership and certain restrictions with regard to owned assets and categories of income. If we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we will generally not be subject to United States Federal corporate income tax on our taxable income that is currently distributed to stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” (at the corporate and stockholder levels) that generally results from an investment in a corporation.
 
Even if we qualify as a REIT, we may be subject to United States Federal income and excise taxes in various situations, such as on our undistributed income. We also will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income on non-arm’s length transactions between us and a TRS (described below) and on any net income from sales of property that was property held for sale to customers in the ordinary course. We and our stockholders may be subject to state or local taxation in various state or local jurisdictions, including those in which we transact business or our stockholders reside. In addition, we could also be subject to the alternative minimum tax, or AMT, on our items of tax preference. The state and local tax laws may not conform to the United States Federal income tax treatment. Any taxes imposed on us reduce our operating cash flow and net income.
 
Certain of our operations or a portion thereof, including property management, asset management and risk management are conducted through taxable REIT subsidiaries, each of which we refer to as a TRS. A TRS is a C-corporation that has not elected REIT status and, as such, is subject to United States Federal corporate income tax. We use TRS entities to facilitate our ability to offer certain services and activities to our residents and investment partners that cannot be offered directly by a REIT. We also use TRS entities to hold investments in certain properties.
 
The recently enacted Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization and Job Creation Act of 2010 extends the 2001 and 2003 tax rates for taxpayers that are taxable as individuals, trusts and estates through 2012, including the maximum 35% tax rate on ordinary income and the maximum 15% tax rate for long-term capital gains and qualified dividend income. Dividends paid by REITs will generally not constitute qualified dividend income eligible for the 15% tax rate for stockholders that are taxable as individuals, trusts and estates and will generally be taxable at the higher ordinary income tax rates.


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Regulation
 
General
 
Apartment properties and their owners are subject to various laws, ordinances and regulations, including those related to real estate broker licensing and regulations relating to recreational facilities such as swimming pools, activity centers and other common areas. Changes in laws increasing the potential liability for environmental conditions existing on properties or increasing the restrictions on discharges or other conditions, as well as changes in laws affecting development, construction and safety requirements, may result in significant unanticipated expenditures, which would adversely affect our net income and cash flows from operating activities. In addition, future enactment of rent control or rent stabilization laws, such as legislation that has been considered in New York, or other laws regulating multifamily housing may reduce rental revenue or increase operating costs in particular markets.
 
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
 
In July 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Act, was signed into federal law. The provisions of the Act include new regulations for over-the-counter derivatives and substantially increased regulation and risk of liability for credit rating agencies, all of which could increase our cost of capital. The Act also includes provisions concerning corporate governance and executive compensation which, among other things, require additional executive compensation disclosures and enhanced independence requirements for board compensation committees and related advisors, as well as provide explicit authority for the Securities and Exchange Commission to adopt proxy access, all of which could result in additional expenses in order to maintain compliance. The Act is wide-ranging, and the provisions are broad with significant discretion given to the many and varied agencies tasked with adopting and implementing the Act. The majority of the provisions of the Act do not go into effect immediately and may be adopted and implemented over many months or years. As such, we cannot predict the full impact of the Act on our financial condition or results of operations.
 
Environmental
 
Various Federal, state and local laws subject property owners or operators to liability for management, and the costs of removal or remediation, of certain potentially hazardous materials present on a property. These materials may include lead-based paint, asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls, and petroleum-based fuels, among other miscellaneous materials. Such laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the release or presence of such materials. In connection with the ownership, operation and management of properties, we could potentially be liable for environmental liabilities or costs associated with our properties or properties we acquire or manage in the future. These and other risks related to environmental matters are described in more detail in Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
 
Insurance
 
Our primary lines of insurance coverage are property, general liability, and workers’ compensation. We believe that our insurance coverages adequately insure our properties against the risk of loss attributable to fire, earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood, terrorism and other perils, and adequately insure us against other risk. Our coverage includes deductibles, retentions and limits that are customary in the industry. We have established loss prevention, loss mitigation, claims handling and litigation management procedures to manage our exposure.
 
Employees
 
At December 31, 2010, we had approximately 3,100 employees, of which approximately 2,400 were at the property level, performing various on-site functions, with the balance managing corporate and area operations, including investment and debt transactions, legal, financial reporting, accounting, information systems, human resources and other support functions. As of December 31, 2010, unions represented 103 of our employees. We have never experienced a work stoppage and believe we maintain satisfactory relations with our employees.


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Available Information
 
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to any of those reports that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission are available free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable through our website at www.aimco.com. The information contained on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report. Our Common Stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “AIV.” In 2010, our chief executive officer submitted his annual corporate governance listing standards certification to the New York Stock Exchange, which certification was unqualified.
 
Item 1A.   Risk Factors
 
The risk factors noted in this section and other factors noted throughout this Annual Report, describe certain risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement.
 
Our existing and future debt financing could render us unable to operate, result in foreclosure on our properties, prevent us from making distributions on our equity or otherwise adversely affect our liquidity.
 
We are subject to the risk that our cash flow from operations will be insufficient to make required payments of principal and interest, and the risk that existing indebtedness may not be refinanced or that the terms of any refinancing will not be as favorable as the terms of existing indebtedness. If we fail to make required payments of principal and interest on secured debt, our lenders could foreclose on the properties and other collateral securing such debt, which would result in loss of income and asset value to us. As of December 31, 2010, substantially all of the properties that we owned or controlled were encumbered by debt. Our organizational documents do not limit the amount of debt that we may incur, and we have significant amounts of debt outstanding. Payments of principal and interest may leave us with insufficient cash resources to operate our properties or pay distributions required to be paid in order to maintain our qualification as a REIT.
 
Disruptions in the financial markets could affect our ability to obtain financing and the cost of available financing and could adversely affect our liquidity.
 
Our ability to obtain financing and the cost of such financing depends on the overall condition of the United States credit markets and, to an important extent, on the level of involvement of certain government sponsored entities, specifically, Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or Freddie Mac, and Federal National Mortgage Association, or Fannie Mae, in secondary credit markets. In recent years, the United States credit markets (outside of multi-family) experienced significant liquidity disruptions, which caused the spreads on debt financings to widen considerably and made obtaining financing, both non-recourse property debt and corporate borrowings, such as our term loan or revolving credit facility, more difficult.
 
During 2008, the Federal Housing Finance Agency, or FHFA, placed Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae into, and they currently remain under, conservatorship. In February 2011, the Obama Administration presented Congress with a set of proposals regarding the Federal government’s future role in the housing finance market, each of which included the winding down of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Freddie Mac’s and Fannie Mae’s future relationship with the Federal government and their future role in the financial markets is uncertain. Any significant reduction in Freddie Mac’s or Fannie Mae’s level of involvement in the secondary credit markets may adversely affect our ability to obtain non-recourse property debt financing. Additionally, further or prolonged disruptions in the credit markets may also affect our ability to renew our credit facility with similar commitments or the cost of financing when it matures in May 2014 (inclusive of a one year extension option).
 
If our ability to obtain financing is adversely affected, we may be unable to satisfy scheduled maturities on existing financing through other sources of liquidity, which could result in lender foreclosure on the properties securing such debt and loss of income and asset value, each of which would adversely affect our liquidity.


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Increases in interest rates would increase our interest expense and reduce our profitability.
 
As of December 31, 2010, on a consolidated basis, we had approximately $470.3 million of variable-rate indebtedness outstanding and $57.0 million of variable rate preferred stock outstanding. Of the total debt subject to variable interest rates, floating rate tax-exempt bond financing was approximately $374.4 million. Floating rate tax-exempt bond financing is benchmarked against the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association Municipal Swap Index, or SIFMA, rate, which since 1989 has averaged 75% of the 30-day LIBOR rate. If this historical relationship continues, we estimate that an increase in 30-day LIBOR of 100 basis points (75 basis points for tax-exempt interest rates) with constant credit risk spreads would result in net income and net income attributable to Aimco common stockholders being reduced (or the amounts of net loss and net loss attributable to Aimco common stockholders being increased) by $3.9 million on an annual basis.
 
At December 31, 2010, we had approximately $450.4 million in cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and notes receivable, a portion of which bear interest at variable rates indexed to LIBOR-based rates, and which may mitigate the effect of an increase in variable rates on our variable-rate indebtedness and preferred stock discussed above.
 
Failure to generate sufficient net operating income may adversely affect our liquidity, limit our ability to fund necessary capital expenditures or adversely affect our ability to pay dividends.
 
Our ability to fund necessary capital expenditures on our properties depends on, among other things, our ability to generate net operating income in excess of required debt payments. If we are unable to fund capital expenditures on our properties, we may not be able to preserve the competitiveness of our properties, which could adversely affect our net operating income.
 
Our ability to make payments to our investors depends on our ability to generate net operating income in excess of required debt payments and capital expenditure requirements. Our net operating income and liquidity may be adversely affected by events or conditions beyond our control, including:
 
  •  the general economic climate;
 
  •  an inflationary environment in which the costs to operate and maintain our properties increase at a rate greater than our ability to increase rents which we can only do upon renewal of existing leases or at the inception of new leases;
 
  •  competition from other apartment communities and other housing options;
 
  •  local conditions, such as loss of jobs, unemployment rates or an increase in the supply of apartments, that might adversely affect apartment occupancy or rental rates;
 
  •  changes in governmental regulations and the related cost of compliance;
 
  •  changes in tax laws and housing laws, including the enactment of rent control laws or other laws regulating multifamily housing; and
 
  •  changes in interest rates and the availability of financing.
 
Covenant restrictions may limit our ability to make payments to our investors.
 
Some of our debt and other securities contain covenants that restrict our ability to make distributions or other payments to our investors unless certain financial tests or other criteria are satisfied. Our credit facility provides, among other things, that we may make distributions to our investors during any four consecutive fiscal quarters in an aggregate amount that does not exceed the greater of 95% of our Funds From Operations for such period, subject to certain non-cash adjustments, or such amount as may be necessary to maintain our REIT status. Our outstanding classes of preferred stock prohibit the payment of dividends on our Common Stock if we fail to pay the dividends to which the holders of the preferred stock are entitled.


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Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, we may not be able to sell properties when appropriate.
 
Real estate investments are relatively illiquid and cannot always be sold quickly. REIT tax rules also restrict our ability to sell properties. Thus, we may not be able to change our portfolio promptly in response to changes in economic or other market conditions. Our ability to dispose of assets in the future will depend on prevailing economic and market conditions, including the cost and availability of financing. This could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
 
Competition could limit our ability to lease apartments or increase or maintain rents.
 
Our apartment properties compete for residents with other housing alternatives, including other rental apartments, condominiums and single-family homes that are available for rent, as well as new and existing condominiums and single-family homes for sale. Competitive residential housing in a particular area could adversely affect our ability to lease apartments and to increase or maintain rental rates. Recent challenges in the credit and housing markets have increased housing inventory that competes with our apartment properties.
 
Our subsidiaries may be prohibited from making distributions and other payments to us.
 
All of our properties are owned, and all of our operations are conducted, by the Aimco Operating Partnership and our other subsidiaries. As a result, we depend on distributions and other payments from the Aimco Operating Partnership and our other subsidiaries in order to satisfy our financial obligations and make payments to our investors. The ability of our subsidiaries to make such distributions and other payments depends on their earnings and cash flows and may be subject to statutory or contractual limitations. As an equity investor in our subsidiaries, our right to receive assets upon their liquidation or reorganization will be effectively subordinated to the claims of their creditors. To the extent that we are recognized as a creditor of such subsidiaries, our claims may still be subordinate to any security interest in or other lien on their assets and to any of their debt or other obligations that are senior to our claims.
 
Redevelopment and construction risks could affect our profitability.
 
We intend to continue to redevelop certain of our properties. These activities are subject to the following risks:
 
  •  we may be unable to obtain, or experience delays in obtaining, necessary zoning, occupancy, or other required governmental or third party permits and authorizations, which could result in increased costs or the delay or abandonment of opportunities;
 
  •  we may incur costs that exceed our original estimates due to increased material, labor or other costs, such as litigation;
 
  •  we may be unable to complete construction and lease up of a property on schedule, resulting in increased construction and financing costs and a decrease in expected rental revenues;
 
  •  occupancy rates and rents at a property may fail to meet our expectations for a number of reasons, including changes in market and economic conditions beyond our control and the development by competitors of competing communities;
 
  •  we may be unable to obtain financing with favorable terms, or at all, for the proposed development of a property, which may cause us to delay or abandon an opportunity;
 
  •  we may abandon opportunities that we have already begun to explore for a number of reasons, including changes in local market conditions or increases in construction or financing costs, and, as a result, we may fail to recover expenses already incurred in exploring those opportunities;
 
  •  we may incur liabilities to third parties during the redevelopment process, for example, in connection with resident lease terminations, or managing existing improvements on the site prior to resident lease terminations; and


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  •  loss of a key member of a project team could adversely affect our ability to deliver redevelopment projects on time and within our budget.
 
We are insured for certain risks, and the cost of insurance, increased claims activity or losses resulting from casualty events may affect our operating results and financial condition.
 
We are insured for a portion of our consolidated properties’ exposure to casualty losses resulting from fire, earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood and other perils, which insurance is subject to deductibles and self-insurance retention. We recognize casualty losses or gains based on the net book value of the affected property and the amount of any related insurance proceeds. In many instances, the actual cost to repair or replace the property may exceed its net book value and any insurance proceeds. We also insure certain unconsolidated properties for a portion of their exposure to such losses. With respect to our consolidated properties, we recognize the uninsured portion of losses as part of casualty losses in the periods in which they are incurred. In addition, we are self-insured for a portion of our exposure to third-party claims related to our employee health insurance plans, workers’ compensation coverage and general liability exposure. With respect to our insurance obligations to unconsolidated properties and our exposure to claims of third parties, we establish reserves at levels that reflect our known and estimated losses. The ultimate cost of losses and the impact of unforeseen events may vary materially from recorded reserves, and variances may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. We purchase insurance to reduce our exposure to losses and limit our financial losses on large individual risks. The availability and cost of insurance are determined by market conditions outside our control. No assurance can be made that we will be able to obtain and maintain insurance at the same levels and on the same terms as we do today. If we are not able to obtain or maintain insurance in amounts we consider appropriate for our business, or if the cost of obtaining such insurance increases materially, we may have to retain a larger portion of the potential loss associated with our exposures to risks.
 
Natural disasters and severe weather may affect our operating results and financial condition.
 
Natural disasters and severe weather such as hurricanes may result in significant damage to our properties. The extent of our casualty losses and loss in operating income in connection with such events is a function of the severity of the event and the total amount of exposure in the affected area. When we have geographic concentration of exposures, a single catastrophe (such as an earthquake) or destructive weather event (such as a hurricane) affecting a region may have a significant negative effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We cannot accurately predict natural disasters or severe weather, or the number and type of such events that will affect us. As a result, our operating and financial results may vary significantly from one period to the next. Although we anticipate and plan for losses, there can be no assurance that our financial results will not be adversely affected by our exposure to losses arising from natural disasters or severe weather in the future that exceed our previous experience and assumptions.
 
We depend on our senior management.
 
Our success depends upon the retention of our senior management, including Terry Considine, our chief executive officer. We have a succession planning and talent development process that is designed to identify potential replacements and develop our team members to provide depth in the organization and a bench of talent on which to draw. However, there are no assurances that we would be able to find qualified replacements for the individuals who make up our senior management if their services were no longer available. The loss of services of one or more members of our senior management team could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We do not currently maintain key-man life insurance for any of our employees.
 
If we are not successful in our acquisition of properties, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
 
The selective acquisition of properties is a component of our strategy. However, we may not be able to complete transactions successfully in the future. Although we seek to acquire properties when such acquisitions increase our property net operating income, Funds From Operations or Net Asset Value, such transactions may fail to perform in accordance with our expectations. In particular, following acquisition, the value and operational


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performance of a property may be diminished if obsolescence or neighborhood changes occur before we are able to redevelop or sell the property.
 
We may be subject to litigation associated with partnership transactions that could increase our expenses and prevent completion of beneficial transactions.
 
We have engaged in, and intend to continue to engage in, the selective acquisition of interests in partnerships controlled by us that own apartment properties. In some cases, we have acquired the general partner of a partnership and then made an offer to acquire the limited partners’ interests in the partnership. In these transactions, we may be subject to litigation based on claims that we, as the general partner, have breached our fiduciary duty to our limited partners or that the transaction violates the relevant partnership agreement or state law. Although we intend to comply with our fiduciary obligations and the relevant partnership agreements, we may incur additional costs in connection with the defense or settlement of this type of litigation. In some cases, this type of litigation may adversely affect our desire to proceed with, or our ability to complete, a particular transaction. Any litigation of this type could also have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
 
Government housing regulations may limit the opportunities at some of our properties and failure to comply with resident qualification requirements may result in financial penalties and/or loss of benefits, such as rental revenues paid by government agencies. Additionally, the government may cease to operate government housing programs which would result in a loss of benefits.
 
We own consolidated and unconsolidated equity interests in certain properties and manage other properties that benefit from governmental programs intended to provide housing to people with low or moderate incomes. These programs, which are usually administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, or HUD, or state housing finance agencies, typically provide one or more of the following: mortgage insurance; favorable financing terms; tax-credit equity; or rental assistance payments to the property owners. As a condition of the receipt of assistance under these programs, the properties must comply with various requirements, which typically limit rents to pre-approved amounts and limit our choice of residents to those with incomes at or below certain levels. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in financial penalties or loss of benefits. We are usually required to obtain the approval of HUD in order to acquire or dispose of a significant interest in or manage a HUD-assisted property. We may not always receive such approval.
 
Additionally, there is no guarantee that the government will continue to operate these programs. Any cessation of these government housing programs may result in our loss of the benefits we receive under these programs, including rental subsidies. During 2010, 2009 and 2008, for continuing operations, our rental revenues include $131.4 million, $126.9 million and $119.5 million, respectively, of subsidies from government agencies. Of the 2010 subsidy amounts, approximately 10.7% related to properties subject to housing assistance contracts that expire in 2011, which we anticipate renewing, and the remainder related to properties subject to housing assistance contracts that expire after 2011 and have a weighted average term of 10.8 years. Any loss of these benefits may adversely affect our liquidity and results of operations.
 
Laws benefiting disabled persons may result in our incurrence of unanticipated expenses.
 
Under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, or ADA, all places intended to be used by the public are required to meet certain Federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. The Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988, or FHAA, requires apartment properties first occupied after March 13, 1991, to comply with design and construction requirements for disabled access. For those projects receiving Federal funds, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 also has requirements regarding disabled access. These and other Federal, state and local laws may require modifications to our properties, or affect renovations of the properties. Noncompliance with these laws could result in the imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants and also could result in an order to correct any non-complying feature, which could result in substantial capital expenditures. Although we believe that our properties are substantially in compliance with present requirements, we may incur unanticipated expenses to comply with the ADA, the FHAA and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 in connection with the ongoing operation or redevelopment of our properties.


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Potential liability or other expenditures associated with potential environmental contamination may be costly.
 
Various Federal, state and local laws subject property owners or operators to liability for management, and the costs of removal or remediation, of certain potentially hazardous materials present on a property, including lead-based paint, asbestos, polychlorinated biphenyls, petroleum-based fuels, and other miscellaneous materials. Such laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the release or presence of such materials. The presence of, or the failure to manage or remedy properly, these materials may adversely affect occupancy at affected apartment communities and the ability to sell or finance affected properties. In addition to the costs associated with investigation and remediation actions brought by government agencies, and potential fines or penalties imposed by such agencies in connection therewith, the improper management of these materials on a property could result in claims by private plaintiffs for personal injury, disease, disability or other infirmities. Various laws also impose liability for the cost of removal, remediation or disposal of these materials through a licensed disposal or treatment facility. Anyone who arranges for the disposal or treatment of these materials is potentially liable under such laws. These laws often impose liability whether or not the person arranging for the disposal ever owned or operated the disposal facility. In connection with the ownership, operation and management of properties, we could potentially be responsible for environmental liabilities or costs associated with our properties or properties we acquire or manage in the future.
 
Moisture infiltration and resulting mold remediation may be costly.
 
Although we are proactively engaged in managing moisture intrusion and preventing the presence of mold at our properties, it is not unusual for mold to be present at some units within the portfolio. We have implemented policies, procedures, third-party audits and training, and include a detailed moisture intrusion and mold assessment during acquisition due diligence. We believe these measures will manage mold exposure at our properties and will minimize the effects that mold may have on our residents. To date, we have not incurred any material costs or liabilities relating to claims of mold exposure or to abate mold conditions. We have only limited insurance coverage for property damage claims arising from the presence of mold and for personal injury claims related to mold exposure. Because the law regarding mold is unsettled and subject to change, we can make no assurance that liabilities resulting from the presence of or exposure to mold will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
 
We may fail to qualify as a REIT.
 
If we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be allowed a deduction for dividends paid to our stockholders in computing our taxable income, and we will be subject to Federal income tax at regular corporate rates, including any applicable alternative minimum tax. This would substantially reduce our funds available for distribution to our investors. Unless entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code, we also would be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we ceased to qualify as a REIT. In addition, our failure to qualify as a REIT would place us in default under our primary credit facilities.
 
We believe that we operate, and have always operated, in a manner that enables us to meet the requirements for qualification as a REIT for Federal income tax purposes. Our continued qualification as a REIT will depend on our satisfaction of certain asset, income, investment, organizational, distribution, stockholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis. Our ability to satisfy the asset tests depends upon our analysis of the fair market values of our assets, some of which are not susceptible to a precise determination, and for which we do not obtain independent appraisals. Our compliance with the REIT income and quarterly asset requirements also depends upon our ability to manage successfully the composition of our income and assets on an ongoing basis. Moreover, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for Federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT qualification requirements. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, will not contend that our interests in subsidiaries or other issuers constitutes a violation of the REIT requirements. Moreover, future economic, market, legal, tax or other considerations may cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT, or our Board of Directors may determine to revoke our REIT status.


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REIT distribution requirements limit our available cash.
 
As a REIT, we are subject to annual distribution requirements, which generally limit the amount of cash we retain for other business purposes, including amounts to fund our growth. We generally must distribute annually at least 90% of our net REIT taxable income, excluding any net capital gain, in order for our distributed earnings not to be subject to corporate income tax. We intend to make distributions to our stockholders to comply with the requirements of the Code. However, differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash could require us to sell assets or borrow funds on a short-term or long-term basis to meet the 90% distribution requirement of the Code.
 
Limits on ownership of shares in our charter may result in the loss of economic and voting rights by purchasers that violate those limits.
 
Our charter limits ownership of our Common Stock by any single stockholder (applying certain “beneficial ownership” rules under the Federal securities laws) to 8.7% (or up to 9.8% upon a waiver from our Board of Directors) of our outstanding shares of Common Stock, or 15% in the case of certain pension trusts, registered investment companies and Mr. Considine. Our charter also limits ownership of our Common Stock and preferred stock by any single stockholder to 8.7% of the value of the outstanding Common Stock and preferred stock, or 15% in the case of certain pension trusts, registered investment companies and Mr. Considine. The charter also prohibits anyone from buying shares of our capital stock if the purchase would result in us losing our REIT status. This could happen if a transaction results in fewer than 100 persons owning all of our shares of capital stock or results in five or fewer persons (applying certain attribution rules of the Code) owning 50% or more of the value of all of our shares of capital stock. If anyone acquires shares in excess of the ownership limit or in violation of the ownership requirements of the Code for REITs:
 
  •  the transfer will be considered null and void;
 
  •  we will not reflect the transaction on our books;
 
  •  we may institute legal action to enjoin the transaction;
 
  •  we may demand repayment of any dividends received by the affected person on those shares;
 
  •  we may redeem the shares;
 
  •  the affected person will not have any voting rights for those shares; and
 
  •  the shares (and all voting and dividend rights of the shares) will be held in trust for the benefit of one or more charitable organizations designated by us.
 
We may purchase the shares of capital stock held in trust at a price equal to the lesser of the price paid by the transferee of the shares or the then current market price. If the trust transfers any of the shares of capital stock, the affected person will receive the lesser of the price paid for the shares or the then current market price. An individual who acquires shares of capital stock that violate the above rules bears the risk that the individual:
 
  •  may lose control over the power to dispose of such shares;
 
  •  may not recognize profit from the sale of such shares if the market price of the shares increases;
 
  •  may be required to recognize a loss from the sale of such shares if the market price decreases; and
 
  •  may be required to repay to us any distributions received from us as a result of his or her ownership of the shares.
 
Our charter may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of us.
 
The 8.7% ownership limit discussed above may have the effect of delaying or precluding acquisition of control of us by a third party without the consent of our Board of Directors. Our charter authorizes our Board of Directors to issue up to 510,587,500 shares of capital stock. As of December 31, 2010, 422,157,736 shares were classified as Common Stock, of which 117,642,872 were outstanding, and 88,429,764 shares were classified as preferred stock,


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of which 24,900,114 were outstanding. Under our charter, our Board of Directors has the authority to classify and reclassify any of our unissued shares of capital stock into shares of capital stock with such preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemptions as our Board of Directors may determine. The authorization and issuance of a new class of capital stock could have the effect of delaying or preventing someone from taking control of us, even if a change in control were in our stockholders’ best interests.
 
The Maryland General Corporation Law may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of us.
 
As a Maryland corporation, we are subject to various Maryland laws that may have the effect of discouraging offers to acquire us and increasing the difficulty of consummating any such offers, even if an acquisition would be in our stockholders’ best interests. The Maryland General Corporation Law, specifically the Maryland Business Combination Act, restricts mergers and other business combination transactions between us and any person who acquires, directly or indirectly, beneficial ownership of shares of our stock representing 10% or more of the voting power without our Board of Directors’ prior approval. Any such business combination transaction could not be completed until five years after the person acquired such voting power, and generally only with the approval of stockholders representing 80% of all votes entitled to be cast and 662/3% of the votes entitled to be cast, excluding the interested stockholder, or upon payment of a fair price. The Maryland General Corporation Law, specifically the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act, provides generally that a person who acquires shares of our capital stock representing 10% or more of the voting power in electing directors will have no voting rights unless approved by a vote of two-thirds of the shares eligible to vote. Additionally, the Maryland General Corporation Law provides, among other things, that the board of directors has broad discretion in adopting stockholders’ rights plans and has the sole power to fix the record date, time and place for special meetings of the stockholders. To date, we have not adopted a shareholders’ rights plan. In addition, the Maryland General Corporation Law provides that corporations that:
 
  •  have at least three directors who are not officers or employees of the entity or related to an acquiring person; and
 
  •  has a class of equity securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended,
 
may elect in their charter or bylaws or by resolution of the board of directors to be subject to all or part of a special subtitle that provides that:
 
  •  the corporation will have a staggered board of directors;
 
  •  any director may be removed only for cause and by the vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors generally, even if a lesser proportion is provided in the charter or bylaws;
 
  •  the number of directors may only be set by the board of directors, even if the procedure is contrary to the charter or bylaws;
 
  •  vacancies may only be filled by the remaining directors, even if the procedure is contrary to the charter or bylaws; and
 
  •  the secretary of the corporation may call a special meeting of stockholders at the request of stockholders only on the written request of the stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting, even if the procedure is contrary to the charter or bylaws.
 
To date, we have not made any of the elections described above.
 
Item 1B.   Unresolved Staff Comments
 
None.


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Item 2.   Properties
 
Our portfolio includes garden style, mid-rise and high-rise properties located in 43 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Our geographic allocation strategy focuses on the 20 largest markets in the United States, which are grouped according to the five geographic areas into which our property operations team is organized. The following table sets forth information on all of our properties as of December 31, 2010:
 
                         
    Number of
    Number
    Average
 
    Properties     of Units     Ownership  
 
Conventional:
                       
Chicago
    15       4,633       94 %
Houston
    7       2,835       82 %
Dallas — Fort Worth
    2       569       100 %
                         
Central
    24       8,037       90 %
Manhattan
    22       957       100 %
                         
New York City
    22       957       100 %
Washington — Northern Virginia — Maryland
    17       8,015       88 %
Boston
    11       4,129       100 %
Philadelphia
    7       3,888       91 %
Suburban New York — New Jersey
    4       1,162       81 %
                         
Northeast
    39       17,194       91 %
Miami
    5       2,471       95 %
Palm Beach — Fort Lauderdale
    4       1,265       93 %
Orlando
    9       2,836       92 %
Tampa
    6       1,755       92 %
Jacksonville
    4       1,643       85 %
Atlanta
    5       1,295       80 %
                         
South
    33       11,265       91 %
Los Angeles
    14       4,645       86 %
Orange County
    4       1,213       94 %
San Diego
    6       2,143       97 %
East Bay
    2       413       85 %
San Jose
    1       224       100 %
San Francisco
    6       1,083       100 %
Seattle
    3       413       75 %
Denver
    9       2,553       78 %
Phoenix
    17       4,420       89 %
                         
West
    62       17,107       88 %
                         
Total target markets
    180       54,560       90 %
Opportunistic and other markets
    39       14,412       93 %
                         
Total conventional owned and managed
    219       68,972       91 %
                         
Affordable owned and managed
    228       26,540          
Property management
    20       2,373          
Asset management
    301       24,809          
                         
Total
    768       122,694          
                         


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At December 31, 2010, we owned an equity interest in and consolidated 399 properties containing 89,875 apartment units, which we refer to as “consolidated properties.” These consolidated properties contain, on average, 225 apartment units, with the largest property containing 2,113 apartment units. These properties offer residents a range of amenities, including swimming pools, clubhouses, spas, fitness centers, dog parks and open spaces. Many of the apartment units offer features such as vaulted ceilings, fireplaces, washer and dryer connections, cable television, balconies and patios. Additional information on our consolidated properties is contained in “Schedule III — Real Estate and Accumulated Depreciation” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. At December 31, 2010, we held an equity interest in and did not consolidate 48 properties containing 5,637 apartment units, which we refer to as “unconsolidated properties.” In addition, we provided property management services for 20 properties containing 2,373 apartment units, and asset management services for 301 properties containing 24,809 apartment units. In certain cases, we may indirectly own generally less than one percent of the economic interest in such properties through a partnership syndication or other fund.
 
Substantially all of our consolidated properties are encumbered by property debt. At December 31, 2010, our consolidated properties were encumbered by aggregate property debt totaling $5,457.8 million having an aggregate weighted average interest rate of 5.52%. Such property debt was collateralized by 388 properties with a combined net book value of $6,443.9 million. Included in the 388 properties, we had a total of 16 property loans on 13 properties, with an aggregate principal balance outstanding of $294.8 million, that were each collateralized by property and cross-collateralized with certain (but not all) other property loans within this group of property loans (see Note 6 of the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information about our property debt).
 
Item 3.   Legal Proceedings
 
None.
 
Item 4.   (Removed and Reserved)


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PART II
 
Item 5.   Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Our Common Stock has been listed and traded on the NYSE under the symbol “AIV” since July 22, 1994. The following table sets forth the quarterly high and low sales prices of our Common Stock, as reported on the NYSE, and the dividends declared in the periods indicated:
 
                         
            Dividends
            Declared
Quarter Ended   High   Low   (per share)
 
2010
                       
December 31, 2010
  $ 26.24     $ 21.22     $ 0.10  
September 30, 2010
    22.82       18.12       0.10  
June 30, 2010
    24.21       18.14       0.10  
March 31, 2010
    19.17       15.01       0.00  
2009
                       
December 31, 2009
  $ 17.09     $ 11.80     $ 0.20  
September 30, 2009
    15.91       7.36       0.10  
June 30, 2009
    11.10       5.18       0.10  
March 31, 2009
    12.89       4.57       0.00  
 
Our Board of Directors determines and declares our dividends. In making a dividend determination, the Board of Directors considers a variety of factors, including: REIT distribution requirements; current market conditions; liquidity needs and other uses of cash, such as for deleveraging and accretive investment activities. In February 2011, our Board of Directors declared a cash dividend of $0.12 per share on our Class A Common Stock for the quarter ended December 31, 2010. Our Board of Directors anticipates similar per share quarterly dividends for the remainder of 2011. However, the Board of Directors may adjust the dividend amount or the frequency with which the dividend is paid based on then prevailing facts and circumstances.
 
On February 22, 2011, the closing price of our Common Stock was $24.24 per share, as reported on the NYSE, and there were 118,131,892 shares of Common Stock outstanding, held by 2,943 stockholders of record. The number of holders does not include individuals or entities who beneficially own shares but whose shares are held of record by a broker or clearing agency, but does include each such broker or clearing agency as one recordholder.
 
As a REIT, we are required to distribute annually to holders of common stock at least 90% of our “real estate investment trust taxable income,” which, as defined by the Code and United States Department of Treasury regulations, is generally equivalent to net taxable ordinary income.
 
From time to time, we may issue shares of Common Stock in exchange for common and preferred OP Units tendered to the Aimco Operating Partnership for redemption in accordance with the terms and provisions of the agreement of limited partnership of the Aimco Operating Partnership. Such shares are issued based on an exchange ratio of one share for each common OP Unit or the applicable conversion ratio for preferred OP Units. The shares are generally issued in exchange for OP Units in private transactions exempt from registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, pursuant to Section 4(2) thereof. During the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2010, we did not issue any shares of Common Stock in exchange for common OP Units or preferred OP Units.
 
Our Board of Directors has, from time to time, authorized us to repurchase shares of our outstanding capital stock. There were no repurchases of our equity securities during the year ended December 31, 2010. As of December 31, 2010, we were authorized to repurchase approximately 19.3 million shares. This authorization has no expiration date. These repurchases may be made from time to time in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions.
 
Dividend Payments
 
Our Credit Agreement includes customary covenants, including a restriction on dividends and other restricted payments, but permits dividends during any four consecutive fiscal quarters in an aggregate amount of up to 95% of


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our Funds From Operations for such period, subject to certain non-cash adjustments, or such amount as may be necessary to maintain our REIT status.
 
Performance Graph
 
The following graph compares cumulative total returns for our Common Stock, the MSCI US REIT Index and the Standard & Poor’s 500 Total Return Index (the “S&P 500”). The MSCI US REIT Index is published by Morgan Stanley Capital International Inc., a provider of equity indices. The indices are weighted for all companies that fit the definitional criteria of the particular index and are calculated to exclude companies as they are acquired and add them to the index calculation as they become publicly traded companies. All companies of the definitional criteria in existence at the point in time presented are included in the index calculations. The graph assumes the investment of $100 in our Common Stock and in each index on December 31, 2005, and that all dividends paid have been reinvested. The historical information set forth below is not necessarily indicative of future performance.
 
Total Return Performance
 
(PERFORMANCE GRAPH)
 
                                                 
    For the Years Ended December 31,
Index   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010
 
Aimco
    100.00       155.12       107.06       57.60       82.27       135.43  
MSCI US REIT
    100.00       135.92       113.06       70.13       90.20       115.89  
S&P 500
    100.00       115.79       122.16       76.96       97.33       111.99  
 
Source: (other than with respect to S&P 500) SNL Financial LC, Charlottesville, VA ©2011
 
The Performance Graph will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing by Aimco under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, except to the extent that Aimco specifically incorporates the same by reference.
 
The information required by Item 5 with respect to securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans is incorporated by reference in Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report.


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Item 6.   Selected Financial Data
 
The following selected financial data is based on our audited historical financial statements. This information should be read in conjunction with such financial statements, including the notes thereto, and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included herein or in previous filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
                                         
    For the Years Ended December 31,
    2010   2009(1)   2008(1)   2007(1)   2006(1)
    (Dollar amounts in thousands, except per share data)
 
OPERATING DATA:
                                       
Total revenues
  $ 1,144,934     $ 1,131,103     $ 1,178,878     $ 1,111,656     $ 1,024,592  
Total operating expenses(2)
    (1,014,425 )     (1,035,408 )     (1,136,563 )     (940,067 )     (862,141 )
Operating income(2)
    130,509       95,695       42,315       171,589       162,451  
Loss from continuing operations(2)
    (165,889 )     (201,641 )     (117,926 )     (47,203 )     (42,999 )
Income from discontinued operations, net(3)
    76,265       156,841       744,928       172,709       330,021  
Net (loss) income
    (89,624 )     (44,800 )     627,002       125,506       287,022  
Net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interests
    17,896       (19,474 )     (214,995 )     (95,595 )     (110,234 )
Net income attributable to preferred stockholders
    (53,590 )     (50,566 )     (53,708 )     (66,016 )     (81,132 )
Net (loss) income attributable to Aimco common stockholders
    (125,318 )     (114,840 )     351,314       (40,586 )     93,710  
Earnings (loss) per common share — basic and diluted:
                                       
Loss from continuing operations attributable to Aimco common stockholders
  $ (1.48 )   $ (1.78 )   $ (2.09 )   $ (1.38 )   $ (1.46 )
Net (loss) income attributable to Aimco common stockholders
  $ (1.08 )   $ (1.00 )   $ 3.96     $ (0.43 )   $ 0.98  
BALANCE SHEET INFORMATION:
                                       
Real estate, net of accumulated depreciation
  $ 6,533,253     $ 6,711,327     $ 6,870,540     $ 6,638,655     $ 6,171,605  
Total assets
    7,378,566       7,906,468       9,441,870       10,617,681       10,292,587  
Total indebtedness
    5,504,801       5,479,476       5,853,544       5,464,521       4,784,107  
Total equity
    1,306,772       1,534,703       1,646,749       2,048,546       2,650,182  
OTHER INFORMATION:
                                       
Dividends declared per common share(4)
  $ 0.30     $ 0.40     $ 7.48     $ 4.31     $ 2.40  
Total consolidated properties (end of period)
    399       426       514       657       703  
Total consolidated apartment units (end of period)
    89,875       95,202       117,719       153,758       162,432  
Total unconsolidated properties (end of period)
    48       77       85       94       102  
Total unconsolidated apartment units (end of period)
    5,637       8,478       9,613       10,878       11,791  
 
 
(1) Certain reclassifications have been made to conform to the current financial statement presentation, including retroactive adjustments to reflect additional properties sold during 2010 as discontinued operations (see Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8).
 
(2) Total operating expenses, operating income and loss from continuing operations for the year ended December 31, 2008, include a $91.1 million pre-tax provision for impairment losses on real estate development assets, which is discussed further in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7.
 
(3) Income from discontinued operations for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007 and 2006 includes $94.9 million, $221.8 million, $800.3 million, $116.1 million and $336.2 million in gains on disposition of real estate, respectively. Income from discontinued operations for 2010, 2009 and 2008 is discussed further in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Item 7.
 
(4) As further discussed in Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, dividends declared per common share during the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2007, included $5.08 and $1.91, respectively, of per share dividends that were paid through the issuance of shares of Aimco Class A Common Stock.


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Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
Executive Overview
 
We are a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust, or REIT. Our principal financial objective is to provide predictable and attractive returns to our stockholders. Our business plan to achieve this objective is to:
 
  •  own and operate a broadly diversified portfolio of primarily class “B/B+” assets with properties concentrated in the 20 largest markets in the United States (as measured by total apartment value, which is the estimated total market value of apartment properties in a particular market);
 
  •  improve our portfolio by selling assets with lower projected returns and reinvesting those proceeds through the purchase of new assets or additional investment in existing assets in our portfolio, including increased ownership or redevelopment; and
 
  •  provide financial leverage primarily by the use of non-recourse, long-dated, fixed-rate property debt and perpetual preferred equity.
 
Our owned real estate portfolio includes 219 conventional properties with 68,972 units and 228 affordable properties with 26,540 units. Our conventional and affordable properties comprise 88% and 12%, respectively, of our total property Net Asset Value. For the three months ended December 31, 2010, our conventional portfolio monthly rents averaged $1,052 and provided 62% operating margins. These average rents increased from $1,042 for the three months ended December 31, 2009. Notwithstanding the economic challenges of the last several years, our diversified portfolio of conventional and affordable properties generated improved property operating results from 2007 to 2010. From 2007 to 2010, the net operating income of our same store properties and total real estate operations increased by 1.2% and 5.8%, respectively.
 
We continue to work toward simplifying our business, including de-emphasizing transaction-based activity fees and, as a result, reducing the cost of personnel involved in those activities. Revenues from transactional activities decreased from $68.2 million during 2008 to $7.9 million during 2010, and during 2010 transactional activities generated approximately 3.0% of our Pro forma Funds From Operations (defined below). Additionally, we have reduced our offsite costs by $16.8 million. Our 2010, 2009 and 2008 results are discussed in the Results of Operations section below.
 
We upgrade the quality of our portfolio through the sale of assets with lower projected returns, which are often in markets less desirable than our target markets, and reinvest these proceeds through the purchase of new assets or additional investment in existing assets in our portfolio, through increased ownership or redevelopment. We prefer the redevelopment of select properties in our existing portfolio to ground-up development, as we believe it provides superior risk adjusted returns with lower volatility.
 
Our leverage strategy focuses on increasing financial returns while minimizing risk. At December 31, 2010, approximately 86% of our leverage consisted of property-level, non-recourse, long-dated, fixed-rate, amortizing debt and 13% consisted of perpetual preferred equity, a combination which helps to limit our refunding and re-pricing risk. At December 31, 2010, we had no outstanding corporate level debt. Our leverage strategy limits refunding risk on our property-level debt. At December 31, 2010, the weighted average maturity of our property-level debt was 7.8 years, with 2% of our debt maturing in 2011, less than 9% maturing in 2012, and on average approximately 7% maturing in each of 2013, 2014 and 2015. Long duration, fixed-rate liabilities provide a hedge against increases in interest rates and inflation. Approximately 91% of our property-level debt is fixed-rate. Of the $104.9 million of property debt maturing during 2011, we completed the refinance of $79.4 million in February 2011, and we are focusing on refinancing our property debt maturing during 2012 through 2015 to extend maturities and lock in current low interest rates.


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During 2010, we repaid the remaining $90.0 million on our term loan. We also expanded our credit facility from $180.0 million to $300.0 million, providing additional liquidity for short-term or unexpected cash requirements. As of December 31, 2010, we had the capacity to borrow $260.3 million pursuant to our credit facility (after giving effect to $39.7 million outstanding for undrawn letters of credit). The revolving credit facility matures May 1, 2013, and may be extended for an additional year, subject to certain conditions.
 
The key financial indicators that we use in managing our business and in evaluating our financial condition and operating performance are: Net Asset Value; Pro forma Funds From Operations, which is Funds From Operations excluding operating real estate impairment losses and preferred equity redemption related amounts; Adjusted Funds From Operations, which is Pro forma Funds From Operations less spending for Capital Replacements; property net operating income, which is rental and other property revenues less direct property operating expenses, including real estate taxes; proportionate property net operating income, which reflects our share of property net operating income of our consolidated and unconsolidated properties; same store property operating results; Free Cash Flow, which is net operating income less spending for Capital Replacements; Free Cash Flow internal rate of return; financial coverage ratios; and leverage as shown on our balance sheet. Funds From Operations is defined and further described in the section captioned “Funds From Operations.” The key macro-economic factors and non-financial indicators that affect our financial condition and operating performance are: household formations; rates of job growth; single-family and multifamily housing starts; interest rates; and availability and cost of financing.
 
Because our operating results depend primarily on income from our properties, the supply and demand for apartments influences our operating results. Additionally, the level of expenses required to operate and maintain our properties and the pace and price at which we redevelop, acquire and dispose of our apartment properties affect our operating results. Our cost of capital is affected by the conditions in the capital and credit markets and the terms that we negotiate for our equity and debt financings.
 
Highlights of our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2010, are summarized below:
 
  •  Average daily occupancy for our Conventional Same Store properties increased 200 basis points, from 94.1% in 2009 to 96.1% in 2010.
 
  •  Conventional Same Store revenues and expenses for 2010, decreased by 0.2% and 1.0%, respectively, as compared to 2009, resulting in a 0.2% increase in net operating income.
 
  •  Total Same Store revenues and expenses for 2010 increased by 0.2% and decreased by 0.8%, respectively, as compared to 2009, resulting in a 0.8% increase in net operating income.
 
  •  Net operating income for our real estate portfolio (continuing operations) increased 2.3% for the year ended December 31, 2010 as compared to 2009.
 
  •  Property sales declined in 2010 as compared to 2009, as property sales completed through July 2010 allowed us to fully repay the remainder of our term debt.
 
The following discussion and analysis of the results of our operations and financial condition should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements in Item 8.
 
Results of Operations
 
Overview
 
2010 compared to 2009
 
We reported net loss attributable to Aimco of $71.7 million and net loss attributable to Aimco common stockholders of $125.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to net loss attributable to Aimco of $64.3 million and net loss attributable to Aimco common stockholders of $114.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, increases of $7.4 million and $10.5 million, respectively. These increases in net loss were principally due to the following items, all of which are discussed in further detail below:
 
  •  a decrease in income from discontinued operations, primarily related to a decrease in gains on dispositions of real estate due to fewer property sales in 2010 as compared to 2009; and


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  •  a decrease in asset management and tax credit revenues, primarily due to decreased amortization of deferred tax credit income and a de-emphasis on transaction-based fees.
 
The effects of these items on our operating results were partially offset by:
 
  •  an increase in net operating income of our properties included in continuing operations, reflecting improved operations;
 
  •  a decrease in provisions for losses on notes receivable, primarily due to the impairment during 2009 of our interest in Casden Properties; and
 
  •  a decrease in earnings allocated to noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships, primarily due to their share of the decrease in gains on disposition of consolidated real estate properties as discussed above.
 
2009 compared to 2008
 
We reported net loss attributable to Aimco of $64.3 million and net loss attributable to Aimco common stockholders of $114.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to net income attributable to Aimco of $412.0 million and net income attributable to Aimco common stockholders of $351.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, decreases of $476.3 million and $466.1 million, respectively. These decreases in net income were principally due to the following items, all of which are discussed in further detail below:
 
  •  a decrease in income from discontinued operations, primarily related to a decrease in gains on dispositions of real estate due to fewer property sales in 2009 as compared to 2008;
 
  •  a decrease in gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other, primarily due to a large gain on the sale of an interest in an unconsolidated real estate partnership in 2008;
 
  •  an increase in depreciation and amortization expense, primarily related to completed redevelopments and capital additions placed in service for partial periods during 2008 or 2009; and
 
  •  a decrease in asset management and tax credit revenues, primarily due to a reduction in promote income, which is income earned in connection with the disposition of properties owned by our consolidated joint ventures.
 
The effects of these items on our operating results were partially offset by:
 
  •  a decrease in general and administrative expenses, primarily related to reductions in personnel and related expenses from our organizational restructuring activities during 2008 and 2009;
 
  •  impairment losses on real estate development assets in 2008, for which no similar impairments were recognized in 2009; and
 
  •  a decrease in earnings allocable to noncontrolling interests, primarily due to a decrease in the noncontrolling interests’ share of the decrease in gains on sales discussed above.
 
The following paragraphs discuss these and other items affecting the results of our operations in more detail.
 
Real Estate Operations
 
Our real estate portfolio is comprised of two business components: conventional real estate operations and affordable real estate operations, which also represent our two reportable segments. Our conventional real estate portfolio consists of market-rate apartments with rents paid by the resident and includes 219 properties with 68,972 units. Our affordable real estate portfolio consists of 228 properties with 26,540 units, with rents that are generally paid, in whole or part, by a government agency. Our conventional and affordable properties contributed 87% and 13%, respectively, of proportionate property net operating income amounts during the year ended December 31, 2010.
 
In accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or GAAP, we consolidate certain properties in which we hold an insignificant economic interest and in some cases we do not consolidate other properties in which we have a significant economic interest. Due to the diversity of our economic ownership interests in our properties, our chief operating decision maker emphasizes proportionate property net


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operating income as a key measurement of segment profit or loss. Accordingly, the results of operations of our conventional and affordable segments discussed below are presented on a proportionate basis.
 
We do not include property management revenues and expenses or casualty related amounts in our assessment of segment performance. Accordingly, these items are not allocated to our segment results discussed below. The effects of these items on our real estate operations results are discussed below on a consolidated basis, that is, before adjustments for noncontrolling interests or our interest in unconsolidated real estate partnerships.
 
The tables and discussions below reflect the proportionate results of our conventional and affordable segments and the consolidated results related to our real estate operations not allocated to segments for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 (in thousands). The tables and discussions below exclude the results of operations for properties included in discontinued operations as of December 31, 2010. Refer to Note 17 in the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further discussion regarding our reporting segments, including a reconciliation of these proportionate amounts to consolidated rental and other property revenues and property operating expenses.
 
Conventional Real Estate Operations
 
Our conventional segment consists of conventional properties we classify as same store, redevelopment and other conventional properties. Same store properties are properties we manage and that have reached and maintained a stabilized level of occupancy during the current and prior year comparable period. Redevelopment properties are those in which a substantial number of available units have been vacated for major renovations or have not been stabilized in occupancy for at least one year as of the earliest period presented, or for which other significant non-unit renovations are underway or have been complete for less than one year. Other conventional properties may include conventional properties that have significant rent control restrictions, acquisition properties, university housing properties and properties that are not multifamily, such as commercial properties or fitness centers. Our definitions of same store and redevelopment properties may result in these populations differing for the purpose of comparing 2010 to 2009 results and 2009 to 2008 results.
 
                                 
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     $ Change     % Change  
 
Rental and other property revenues:
                               
Conventional same store
  $ 641,282     $ 642,784     $ (1,502 )     (0.2 )%
Conventional redevelopment
    113,273       107,461       5,812       5.4 %
Other Conventional
    71,414       70,065       1,349       1.9 %
                                 
Total
    825,969       820,310       5,659       0.7 %
                                 
Property operating expenses:
                               
Conventional same store
    247,658       250,062       (2,404 )     (1.0 )%
Conventional redevelopment
    40,915       42,206       (1,291 )     (3.1 )%
Other Conventional
    34,689       33,990       699       2.1 %
                                 
Total
    323,262       326,258       (2,996 )     (0.9 )%
                                 
Property net operating income:
                               
Conventional same store
    393,624       392,722       902       0.2 %
Conventional redevelopment
    72,358       65,255       7,103       10.9 %
Other Conventional
    36,725       36,075       650       1.8 %
                                 
Total
  $ 502,707     $ 494,052     $ 8,655       1.8 %
                                 
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to 2009, our conventional segment’s proportionate property net operating income increased $8.7 million, or 1.8%.


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Conventional same store net operating income increased by $0.9 million. This increase was attributable to a $2.4 million decrease in expense primarily due to a reduction during 2010 of previously estimated real estate tax obligations resulting from successful appeals settled during the period, and decreases in marketing expenses and unit turn costs, partially offset by increases in contract services, insurance and administrative costs. This decrease in expense was partially offset by a $1.5 million decrease in revenue, primarily due to lower average rent (approximately $34 per unit). The decrease in average rent was partially offset by a 200 basis point increase in average physical occupancy and higher utility reimbursement and miscellaneous income. Rental rates on new leases transacted during the year ended December 31, 2010, were 2.3% lower than expiring lease rates and renewal rates were 1.5% higher than expiring lease rates.
 
The net operating income of our conventional redevelopment properties increased by $7.1 million, primarily due to a $5.8 million increase in revenue resulting from higher average physical occupancy and an increase in utility reimbursement and miscellaneous income, and a $1.3 million reduction in expense primarily related to marketing expenses, partially offset by higher insurance.
 
Our other conventional net operating income increased by $0.7 million, primarily due to increases in both revenue and expense of approximately 2.0%.
 
                                 
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2009     2008     $ Change     % Change  
 
Rental and other property revenues:
                               
Conventional same store
  $ 585,501     $ 600,907     $ (15,406 )     (2.6 )%
Conventional redevelopment
    165,480       153,983       11,497       7.5 %
Other Conventional
    69,329       68,126       1,203       1.8 %
                                 
Total
    820,310       823,016       (2,706 )     (0.3 )%
                                 
Property operating expenses:
                               
Conventional same store
    226,572       225,694       878       0.4 %
Conventional redevelopment
    65,996       65,111       885       1.4 %
Other Conventional
    33,690       31,527       2,163       6.9 %
                                 
Total
    326,258       322,332       3,926       1.2 %
                                 
Property net operating income:
                               
Conventional same store
    358,929       375,213       (16,284 )     (4.3 )%
Conventional redevelopment
    99,484       88,872       10,612       11.9 %
Other Conventional
    35,639       36,599       (960 )     (2.6 )%
                                 
Total
  $ 494,052     $ 500,684     $ (6,632 )     (1.3 )%
                                 
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to 2008, our conventional segment’s proportionate property net operating income decreased $6.6 million, or 1.3%.
 
Our conventional same store net operating income decreased $16.3 million, or 4.3%. This decrease was primarily attributable to a $15.4 million decrease in revenue, primarily due to a 2.5% decline in rental rates and a 90 basis point decrease in occupancy, partially offset by an increase in utility reimbursements and miscellaneous income. The decrease was also attributable to a $0.9 million increase in expense, primarily due to higher insurance and personnel costs, partially offset by lower administrative costs.
 
Conventional redevelopment net operating income increased by $10.6 million, primarily due to an $11.5 million increase in revenue. Revenue increased due to more units in service at these properties during 2009 and an increase in utility reimbursements and miscellaneous income. This increase in revenue was partially offset by a $0.9 million increase in expense, primarily related to higher real estate taxes, partially offset by lower administrative costs.


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Our other conventional net operating income decreased by $0.9 million, primarily due to a 6.9% increase in expenses partially offset by a 1.8% increase in revenues.
 
Affordable Real Estate Operations
 
Our affordable segment consists of properties we classify as same store or other (primarily redevelopment properties). Our criteria for classifying affordable properties as same store or redevelopment are consistent with those for our conventional properties described above. Our definitions of same store and redevelopment properties may result in these populations differing for the purpose of comparing 2010 to 2009 results and 2009 to 2008 results.
 
                                 
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2010     2009     $ Change     % Change  
 
Rental and other property revenues:
                               
Affordable same store
  $ 116,852     $ 113,853     $ 2,999       2.6 %
Other Affordable
    13,710       12,695       1,015       8.0 %
                                 
Total
    130,562       126,548       4,014       3.2 %
                                 
Property operating expenses:
                               
Affordable same store
    53,121       53,057       64       0.1 %
Other Affordable
    5,519       5,998       (479 )     (8.0 )%
                                 
Total
    58,640       59,055       (415 )     (0.7 )%
                                 
Property net operating income:
                               
Affordable same store
    63,731       60,796       2,935       4.8 %
Other Affordable
    8,191       6,697       1,494       22.3 %
                                 
Total
  $ 71,922     $ 67,493     $ 4,429       6.6 %
                                 
 
The proportionate property net operating income of our affordable segment increased $4.4 million, or 6.6%, during the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to 2009. Affordable same store net operating income increased by $2.9 million, primarily due to a $3.0 million increase in revenue due to higher average rent ($7 per unit) and higher average physical occupancy (18 basis points). The net operating income of our other affordable properties increased by $1.5 million, primarily due to an increase in revenue driven by higher average rent ($23 per unit) and higher average occupancy.
 
                                 
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2009     2008     $ Change     % Change  
 
Rental and other property revenues:
                               
Affordable same store
  $ 113,853     $ 109,483     $ 4,370       4.0 %
Other Affordable
    12,695       12,209       486       4.0 %
                                 
Total
    126,548       121,692       4,856       4.0 %
                                 
Property operating expenses:
                               
Affordable same store
    53,057       52,975       82       0.2 %
Other Affordable
    5,998       6,048       (50 )     (0.8 )%
                                 
Total
    59,055       59,023       32       0.1 %
                                 
Property net operating income:
                               
Affordable same store
    60,796       56,508       4,288       7.6 %
Other Affordable
    6,697       6,161       536       8.7 %
                                 
Total
  $ 67,493     $ 62,669     $ 4,824       7.7 %
                                 


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Our affordable segment proportionate property net operating income increased $4.8 million, or 7.7%, during the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to 2008. Affordable same store net operating income increased $4.3 million, primarily due to increased revenue. Affordable same store revenue increased by $4.4 million, primarily due to higher average rent ($29 per unit), partially offset by lower average physical occupancy (56 basis points). The net operating income of our other affordable properties increased by $0.5 million, primarily due to an increase in revenues due to higher average rent ($43 per unit), partially offset by lower average occupancy. The increase in revenues was partially offset by an increase in expenses.
 
Non-Segment Real Estate Operations
 
Real estate operations net operating income amounts not attributed to our conventional or affordable segments include property management revenues and expenses and casualty losses, reported in consolidated amounts, which we do not allocate to our conventional or affordable segments for purposes of evaluating segment performance (see Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8).
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to 2009, property management revenues decreased by $2.2 million, from $5.1 million to $2.9 million, primarily due to the elimination of revenues related to properties consolidated during 2010 in connection with our adoption of revised accounting guidance regarding consolidation of variable interest entities (see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8). For the year ended December 31, 2010, as compared to 2009, expenses not allocated to our conventional or affordable segments, including property management expenses and casualty losses, decreased by $3.2 million. Property management expenses decreased by $3.0 million, from $51.2 million to $48.2 million, primarily due to reductions in personnel and related costs attributed to our restructuring activities and casualty losses decreased by $0.2 million, from $9.8 million to $9.6 million.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to 2008, property management revenues decreased by $1.3 million, from $6.4 million to $5.1 million, primarily due to a decrease in the number of managed properties due to asset sales. For the year ended December 31, 2009, as compared to 2008, expenses not allocated to our conventional or affordable segments decreased by $16.5 million. Property management expenses decreased by $16.6 million, from $67.8 million to $51.2 million, primarily due to reductions in personnel and related costs attributed to our restructuring activities, and casualty losses increased by $0.1 million.
 
Asset Management and Tax Credit Revenues
 
We perform activities and services for consolidated and unconsolidated real estate partnerships, including portfolio strategy, capital allocation, joint ventures, tax credit syndication, acquisitions, dispositions and other transaction activities. These activities are conducted in part by our taxable subsidiaries, and the related net operating income may be subject to income taxes.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, asset management and tax credit revenues decreased $14.3 million. This decrease is attributable to an $8.7 million decrease in income related to our affordable housing tax credit syndication business. Approximately $3.8 million of this decrease is due to the delivery of historic credits during 2009 for which no comparable credits were delivered during 2010, and the remainder of the decrease is primarily due to a reduction in amortization of deferred tax credit income. Asset management and tax credit revenues also decreased due to a $2.0 million decrease in current asset management fees due to the elimination of fees on newly consolidated properties, for which the benefit of these fees is now included in noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships, a $1.9 million decrease in disposition and other fees we earn in connection with transactional activities, and a $1.7 million decrease in promote income, which is income earned in connection with the disposition of properties owned by our consolidated joint ventures.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, asset management and tax credit revenues decreased $49.0 million. This decrease is primarily attributable to a $42.8 million decrease in promote income due to fewer sales of joint venture assets in 2009, a $7.6 million decrease in other general partner transactional fees, and a $2.2 million decrease in asset management fees, partially offset by a $3.6 million increase in revenues related to our affordable housing tax credit syndication business, including syndication fees and other revenue earned in connection with these arrangements.


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Investment Management Expenses
 
Investment management expenses consist primarily of the costs of personnel that perform asset management and tax credit activities. For the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, investment management expenses decreased $1.3 million. This decrease is primarily due to a $4.3 million reduction in personnel and related costs from our organizational restructurings, partially offset by a $3.0 million net increase in expenses, primarily related to our write off of previously deferred costs related to tax credit projects we recently abandoned.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, investment management expenses decreased $9.0 million, primarily due to reductions in personnel and related costs from our organizational restructurings (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8) and a reduction in transaction costs, which in 2008 include the retrospective application of SFAS 141(R).
 
Depreciation and Amortization
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, depreciation and amortization decreased $1.6 million, or 0.4%. This decrease was primarily due to depreciation adjustments recognized in 2009 to reduce the carrying amount of certain properties. This decrease was partially offset by an increase in depreciation primarily related to properties we consolidated during 2010 based on our adoption of revised accounting guidance regarding consolidation of variable interest entities (see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8) and completed redevelopments and other capital projects recently placed in service.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, depreciation and amortization increased $51.2 million, or 13.6%. This increase primarily consists of depreciation related to properties acquired during the latter part of 2008, completed redevelopments and other capital projects placed in service in the latter part of 2009.
 
Provision for Impairment Losses on Real Estate Development Assets
 
In connection with the preparation of our 2008 annual financial statements, we assessed the recoverability of our investment in our Lincoln Place property, located in Venice, California. Based upon the decline in land values in Southern California during 2008 and the expected timing of our redevelopment efforts, we determined that the total carrying amount of the property was no longer probable of full recovery and, accordingly, during the three months ended December 31, 2008, recognized an impairment loss of $85.4 million ($55.6 million net of tax).
 
Similarly, we assessed the recoverability of our investment in Pacific Bay Vistas (formerly Treetops), a vacant property located in San Bruno, California, and determined that the carrying amount of the property was no longer probable of full recovery and, accordingly, we recognized an impairment loss of $5.7 million for this property during the three months ended December 31, 2008.
 
The impairments discussed above totaled $91.1 million and are included in provisions for impairment losses on real estate development assets in our consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2008 included in Item 8. We recognized no similar impairments on real estate development assets during the years ended December 31, 2010 or 2009.
 
General and Administrative Expenses
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, general and administrative expenses decreased $3.3 million, or 5.8%. This decrease is primarily attributable to net reductions in personnel and related expenses, partially offset by an increase in information technology outsourcing costs.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, general and administrative expenses decreased $23.7 million, or 29.5%. This decrease is primarily attributable to reductions in personnel and related expenses associated with our organizational restructurings (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8), pursuant to which we eliminated approximately 400, or 36%, of our offsite positions between December 31, 2008 and December 31, 2009.


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As a result of our restructuring activities, our general and administrative expense as a percentage of total revenues has decreased from 6.8% in 2008, to 5.0% in 2009 and 4.7% in 2010.
 
Other Expenses, Net
 
Other expenses, net includes franchise taxes, risk management activities, partnership administration expenses and certain non-recurring items.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, other expenses, net decreased by $5.0 million. During 2009, we settled certain litigation matters resulting in a net expense in our operations, and in 2010 we settled certain litigation matters that resulted in a net gain in our operations. The effect of the expense in 2009 and gain in 2010 resulted in a $14.8 million decrease in other expenses, net from 2009 to 2010. This decrease was partially offset by an increase in the cost of our insurance (net of a reduction in the number of properties insured from 2009 to 2010).
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, other expenses, net decreased by $6.8 million. The decrease is primarily attributable to a $5.4 million write-off during 2008 of certain communications hardware and capitalized costs in 2008, and a $5.3 million reduction in expenses of our self insurance activities, including a decrease in casualty losses on less than wholly owned properties from 2008 to 2009. These decreases are partially offset by an increase of $4.8 million in costs related to certain litigation matters.
 
Restructuring Costs
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, we recognized restructuring costs of $11.2 million, as compared to $22.8 million in the year ended December 31, 2008, related to our organizational restructurings, which are further discussed in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8. For the year ended December 31, 2010, we recognized no similar restructuring costs.
 
Interest Income
 
Interest income consists primarily of interest on notes receivable from non-affiliates and unconsolidated real estate partnerships, interest on cash and restricted cash accounts, and accretion of discounts on certain notes receivable from unconsolidated real estate partnerships. Transactions that result in accretion may occur infrequently and thus accretion income may vary from period to period.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, interest income increased $2.0 million, or 22.4%. Interest income increased during 2010 primarily due to an increase of accretion income related to a change in timing and amount of collection for certain of our discounted notes, including several notes that were repaid in advance of their maturity dates.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, interest income decreased $10.5 million, or 53.5%. Interest income decreased by $8.7 million due to lower interest rates on notes receivable, cash and restricted cash balances and lower average balances and by $4.1 million due to a decrease in accretion income related to our note receivable from Casden Properties LLC for which we ceased accretion following impairment of the note in 2008. These decreases were partially offset by a $2.3 million increase in accretion income related to other notes during the year ended December 31, 2008, resulting from a change in the timing and amount of collection.
 
Provision for Losses on Notes Receivable
 
During the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, we recognized net provisions for losses on notes receivable of $0.9 million, $21.5 million and $17.6 million, respectively. The provisions for losses on notes receivable for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008, primarily consist of impairments related to our investment in Casden Properties LLC, which are discussed further below.
 
As further discussed in Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, we have an investment in Casden Properties LLC, an entity organized to acquire, re-entitle and develop land parcels in Southern California.


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Based upon the profit allocation agreement, we account for this investment as a note receivable. In connection with the preparation of our 2008 annual financial statements and as a result of a decline in land values in Southern California, we determined our recorded investment amount was not fully recoverable, and accordingly recognized an impairment loss of $16.3 million ($10.0 million net of tax) during the three months ended December 31, 2008. In connection with the preparation of our 2009 annual financial statements and as a result of continued declines in land values in Southern California, we determined our then recorded investment amount was not fully recoverable, and accordingly recognized an impairment loss of $20.7 million ($12.4 million net of tax) during the three months ended December 31, 2009.
 
In addition to the impairments related to Casden Properties LLC discussed above, we recognized provisions for losses on notes receivable totaling $0.9 million, $0.8 million and $1.3 million during the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
 
Interest Expense
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, interest expense, which includes the amortization of deferred financing costs, increased by less than $0.1 million. Property related interest expense increased by $7.6 million, due to a $3.3 million increase related to properties newly consolidated in 2010 (see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further discussion of our adoption of ASU 2009-17) and an increase related to properties refinanced with higher average outstanding balances, partially offset by lower average rates. The increase in property related interest expense was substantially offset by a $7.6 million decrease in corporate interest expense, primarily due to a decrease in the average outstanding balance on our term loan, which we repaid during July 2010.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, interest expense increased $1.1 million, or 0.3%. Property related interest expense increased by $20.5 million, primarily due to a $14.2 million decrease in capitalized interest due to a reduction in redevelopment during 2009, and an increase of $5.1 million related to properties refinanced with higher average rates, partially offset by lower average outstanding balances during 2009. The increase in property related interest expense was offset by a $19.4 million decrease in corporate interest expense, primarily due to lower average outstanding balances and lower average rates during 2009.
 
Equity in Losses of Unconsolidated Real Estate Partnerships
 
Equity in losses of unconsolidated real estate partnerships includes our share of net losses of our unconsolidated real estate partnerships, and may include impairment losses, gains or losses on the disposition of real estate assets or depreciation expense which generally exceeds the net operating income recognized by such unconsolidated partnerships.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, equity in losses of unconsolidated real estate partnerships increased $11.7 million. During the three months ended December 31, 2010, certain of our consolidated investment partnerships, including those we consolidated in 2010 in connection with our adoption of ASU 2009-17, reduced by $9.8 million their investment balances related to unconsolidated low income housing tax credit partnerships based on a reduction in the remaining tax credits to be delivered. This increase in equity in losses was in addition to an increase in equity in losses from real estate operations due to an increase in the number of unconsolidated partnerships, resulting from our consolidation during 2010 of additional investment partnerships that hold investments in unconsolidated real estate partnerships. These losses had an insignificant effect on net loss attributable to Aimco during 2010 as substantially all of the results of these consolidated investment partnerships are attributed to the noncontrolling interests in these entities.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, equity in losses of unconsolidated real estate partnerships increased $6.7 million. The increase in our equity in losses from 2008 to 2009 was primarily due to our sale in late 2008 of an interest in an unconsolidated real estate partnership that generated $3.0 million of equity in earnings during the year ended December 31, 2008, and our sale during 2009 of our interest in an unconsolidated group purchasing organization which resulted in a decrease of equity in earnings of approximately $1.2 million.


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Gain on Dispositions of Unconsolidated Real Estate and Other
 
Gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other includes gains on disposition of interests in unconsolidated real estate partnerships, gains on dispositions of land and other non-depreciable assets and certain costs related to asset disposal activities. Changes in the level of gains recognized from period to period reflect the changing level of disposition activity from period to period. Additionally, gains on properties sold are determined on an individual property basis or in the aggregate for a group of properties that are sold in a single transaction, and are not comparable period to period.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other decreased $10.9 million. This decrease is primarily attributable to $8.6 million of additional proceeds received in 2009 related to our disposition during 2008 of an interest in an unconsolidated real estate partnership and a $4.0 million gain from the disposition of our interest in a group purchasing organization during 2009.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other decreased $75.8 million. This decrease is primarily attributable to a net gain of $98.4 million on our disposition in 2008 of interests in two unconsolidated real estate partnerships. This decrease was partially offset by $18.7 million of gains on the disposition of interests in unconsolidated partnerships during 2009. Gains recognized in 2009 consist of $8.6 million related to our receipt in 2009 of additional proceeds related to our disposition during 2008 of one of the partnership interests discussed above (see Note 3 to the consolidated financials statements in Item 8), $4.0 million from the disposition of our interest in a group purchasing organization (see Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8), and $6.1 million from our disposition in 2009 of interests in several unconsolidated real estate partnerships.
 
Income Tax Benefit
 
Certain of our operations or a portion thereof, including property management, asset management and risk management are conducted through taxable REIT subsidiaries, each of which we refer to as a TRS. A TRS is a C-corporation that has not elected REIT status and, as such, is subject to United States Federal corporate income tax. We use TRS entities to facilitate our ability to offer certain services and activities to our residents and investment partners that cannot be offered directly by a REIT. We also use TRS entities to hold investments in certain properties. Income taxes related to the results of continuing operations of our TRS entities are included in income tax benefit in our consolidated statements of operations.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, income tax benefit increased by $0.9 million, from $17.5 million to $18.4 million. This increase in income tax benefit was primarily due to increased losses of our TRS entities, and was substantially offset by the $8.1 million tax benefit we recognized in 2009 related to the impairment of our investment in Casden Properties, LLC, for which no similar benefit was recognized in 2010.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, income tax benefit decreased by $39.1 million. This decrease was primarily attributed to $36.1 million of income tax benefit recognized in 2008 related to the impairments of our Lincoln Place property and our investment in Casden Properties LLC, both of which are owned through TRS entities, partially offset by $8.1 million of income tax benefit recognized in 2009 related to the impairment of our investment in Casden Properties LLC. The decrease in tax benefit from 2008 to 2009 related to these impairment losses was in addition to a decrease in tax benefit primarily due to larger losses by our TRS entities during 2008 as compared to 2009, including restructuring costs incurred in 2008 and a reduction in personnel and other costs in 2009 as a result of the organizational restructurings.
 
Income from Discontinued Operations, Net
 
The results of operations for properties sold during the period or designated as held for sale at the end of the period are generally required to be classified as discontinued operations for all periods presented. The components of net earnings that are classified as discontinued operations include all property-related revenues and operating expenses, depreciation expense recognized prior to the classification as held for sale, property-specific interest


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expense and debt extinguishment gains and losses to the extent there is secured debt on the property. In addition, any impairment losses on assets held for sale and the net gain or loss on the eventual disposal of properties held for sale are reported in discontinued operations.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, income from discontinued operations totaled $76.3 million and $156.8 million, respectively. The $80.5 million decrease in income from discontinued operations was principally due to a $129.9 million decrease in gain on dispositions of real estate, net of income taxes, primarily attributable to fewer properties sold in 2010 as compared to 2009, partially offset by a $21.0 million decrease in operating loss (inclusive of a $41.9 million decrease in real estate impairment losses) and a $34.9 million decrease in interest expense.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008, income from discontinued operations totaled $156.8 million and $744.9 million, respectively. The $588.1 million decrease in income from discontinued operations was principally due to a $541.1 million decrease in gain on dispositions of real estate, net of income taxes, primarily attributable to fewer properties sold in 2009 as compared to 2008, and a $112.8 million decrease in operating income (inclusive of a $27.1 million increase in real estate impairment losses), partially offset by a $59.8 million decrease in interest expense and a $44.9 million increase in income tax benefit for 2009.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2010, we sold 51 consolidated properties for gross proceeds of $401.4 million and net proceeds of $118.4 million, resulting in a net gain on sale of approximately $86.1 million (which is net of $8.8 million of related income taxes). During the year ended December 31, 2009, we sold 89 consolidated properties for gross proceeds of $1.3 billion and net proceeds of $432.7 million, resulting in a net gain on sale of approximately $216.0 million (which is net of $5.8 million of related income taxes). During the year ended December 31, 2008, we sold 151 consolidated properties for gross proceeds of $2.4 billion and net proceeds of $1.1 billion, resulting in a net gain on sale of approximately $757.1 million (which is net of $43.1 million of related income taxes).
 
For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, income from discontinued operations includes the operating results of the properties sold during the year ended December 31, 2010.
 
Changes in the level of gains recognized from period to period reflect the changing level of our disposition activity from period to period. Additionally, gains on properties sold are determined on an individual property basis or in the aggregate for a group of properties that are sold in a single transaction, and are not comparable period to period (see Note 13 of the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information on discontinued operations).
 
Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Real Estate Partnerships
 
Noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships reflects the non-Aimco partners’, or noncontrolling partners’, share of operating results of consolidated real estate partnerships, as well as the noncontrolling partners’ share of property management fees, interest on notes and other amounts that we charge to such partnerships. As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, we adopted the provisions of SFAS 160, which are now codified in the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s Accounting Standards Codification, or FASB ASC, Topic 810, effective January 1, 2009. Prior to our adoption of SFAS 160, we generally did not recognize a benefit for the noncontrolling interest partners’ share of partnership losses for partnerships that have deficit noncontrolling interest balances and we generally recognized a charge to our earnings for distributions paid to noncontrolling partners for partnerships that had deficit noncontrolling interest balances. Under the updated provisions of FASB ASC Topic 810, we are required to attribute losses to noncontrolling interests even if such attribution would result in a deficit noncontrolling interest balance and we are no longer required to recognize a charge to our earnings for distributions paid to noncontrolling partners for partnerships that have deficit noncontrolling interest balances.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, we allocated net losses of $13.3 million to noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships as compared to net income of $22.5 million allocated to these noncontrolling interests during the year ended December 31, 2009, a variance of $35.8 million. This change was substantially


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attributed to a decrease in the noncontrolling interest partners’ share of income from discontinued operations, which decreased primarily due to a reduction in gains on the dispositions of real estate from 2009 to 2010.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, net earnings attributed to noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships decreased by $133.2 million. This decrease is primarily attributable to a reduction of $108.7 million related to the noncontrolling interest partners’ share of gains on dispositions of real estate, due primarily to fewer sales in 2009 as compared to 2008, $5.5 million of losses allocated to noncontrolling interests in 2009 that we would not have allocated to the noncontrolling interest partners in 2008 because to do so would have resulted in deficits in their noncontrolling interest balances, and approximately $3.8 million related to deficit distribution charges recognized as a reduction to our earnings in 2008, for which we did not recognize similar charges in 2009 based on the change in accounting discussed above. These decreases are in addition to the noncontrolling interest partners’ share of increased losses of our consolidated real estate partnerships in 2009 as compared to 2008.
 
Noncontrolling Interests in Aimco Operating Partnership
 
Noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership consist of common partnership units and preferred OP Units held by limited partners in the Aimco Operating Partnership other than Aimco. We allocate the Aimco Operating Partnership’s income or loss to the holders of common partnership units based on the weighted average number of common partnership units (including those held by Aimco) outstanding during the period. Holders of the preferred OP Units participate in the Aimco Operating Partnership’s income or loss only to the extent of their preferred distributions.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, compared to the year ended December 31, 2009, the effect on our earnings of income or loss attributable to noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership changed by $1.5 million. This change is primarily attributable to the $1.8 million excess of the carrying amount over the consideration paid in our repurchase of certain preferred OP Units during 2010, which is reflected as a reduction of income allocated to preferred noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership.
 
For the year ended December 31, 2009, compared to the year ended December 31, 2008, the effect on our earnings of income or loss attributable to noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership changed by $62.3 million. This change is attributable to a decrease of $50.8 million related to the noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership’s share of income from discontinued operations (net of noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships), due primarily to larger gains on sales in 2008 relative to 2009 and $11.5 million in deficit distribution charges recognized during 2008 due to distributions in excess of the positive balance in noncontrolling interest. These changes were also affected by a decrease in the noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership’s effective ownership interest from 2008 to 2009.
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP, which requires us to make estimates and assumptions. We believe that the following critical accounting policies involve our more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
 
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
 
Real estate and other long-lived assets to be held and used are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization, unless the carrying amount of the asset is not recoverable. If events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of a property may not be recoverable, we make an assessment of its recoverability by comparing the carrying amount to our estimate of the undiscounted future cash flows, excluding interest charges, of the property. If the carrying amount exceeds the estimated aggregate undiscounted future cash flows, we recognize an impairment loss to the extent the carrying amount exceeds the estimated fair value of the property.
 
From time to time, we have non-revenue producing properties that we hold for future redevelopment. We assess the recoverability of the carrying amount of these redevelopment properties by comparing our estimate of undiscounted future cash flows based on the expected service potential of the redevelopment property upon


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completion to the carrying amount. In certain instances, we use a probability-weighted approach to determine our estimate of undiscounted future cash flows when alternative courses of action are under consideration. As discussed in Provision for Impairment Losses on Real Estate Development Assets within the preceding discussion of our Results of Operations, during 2008 we recognized impairment losses on our Lincoln Place and Pacific Bay Vistas properties of $85.4 million ($55.6 million net of tax) and $5.7 million, respectively.
 
Real estate investments are subject to varying degrees of risk. Several factors may adversely affect the economic performance and value of our real estate investments. These factors include:
 
  •  the general economic climate;
 
  •  competition from other apartment communities and other housing options;
 
  •  local conditions, such as loss of jobs or an increase in the supply of apartments, that might adversely affect apartment occupancy or rental rates;
 
  •  changes in governmental regulations and the related cost of compliance;
 
  •  increases in operating costs (including real estate taxes) due to inflation and other factors, which may not be offset by increased rents;
 
  •  changes in tax laws and housing laws, including the enactment of rent control laws or other laws regulating multifamily housing; and
 
  •  changes in interest rates and the availability of financing.
 
Any adverse changes in these and other factors could cause an impairment of our long-lived assets, including real estate and investments in unconsolidated real estate partnerships. During 2011, we expect to market for sale certain real estate properties that are inconsistent with our long-term investment strategy. For any properties that are sold or meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale during 2011, the reduction in the estimated holding period for these assets may result in additional impairment losses.
 
In addition to the impairments of Lincoln Place and Pacific Bay Vistas discussed above, based on periodic tests of recoverability of long-lived assets, for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, we recorded impairment losses of $0.4 million and $2.3 million, respectively, related to properties classified as held for use, and during the year ended December 31, 2008, we recorded no additional impairments related to properties held for use. During the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, we recognized impairment losses of $12.7 million, $54.5 million and $27.4 million, respectively, for properties included in discontinued operations, primarily due to reductions in the estimated holding periods for assets sold during these periods.
 
Notes Receivable and Interest Income Recognition
 
Notes receivable from unconsolidated real estate partnerships and from non-affiliates represent our two portfolio segments, as defined in FASB Accounting Standards Update 2010-20, Disclosures about the Credit Quality of Financing Receivables and the Allowance for Credit Losses, that we use to evaluate for potential loan loss. Notes receivable from unconsolidated real estate partnerships consist primarily of notes receivable from partnerships in which we are the general partner but do not consolidate the partnership. These loans are typically due on demand, have no stated maturity date and may not require current payments of principal or interest. Notes receivable from non-affiliates have stated maturity dates and may require current payments of principal and interest. Repayment of these notes is subject to a number of variables, including the performance and value of the underlying real estate properties and the claims of unaffiliated mortgage lenders, which are generally senior to our claims. Our notes receivable consist of two classes: loans extended by us that we carry at the face amount plus accrued interest, which we refer to as “par value notes;” and loans extended by predecessors whose positions we generally acquired at a discount, which we refer to as “discounted notes.”
 
We record interest income on par value notes as earned in accordance with the terms of the related loan agreements. We discontinue the accrual of interest on such notes when the notes are impaired, as discussed below, or when there is otherwise significant uncertainty as to the collection of interest. We record income on such nonaccrual


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loans using the cost recovery method, under which we apply cash receipts first to the recorded amount of the loan; thereafter, any additional receipts are recognized as income.
 
We recognize interest income on discounted notes receivable based upon whether the amount and timing of collections are both probable and reasonably estimable. We consider collections to be probable and reasonably estimable when the borrower has closed or entered into certain pending transactions (which include real estate sales, refinancings, foreclosures and rights offerings) that provide a reliable source of repayment. In such instances, we recognize accretion income, on a prospective basis using the effective interest method over the estimated remaining term of the loans, equal to the difference between the carrying amount of the discounted notes and the estimated collectible value. We record income on all other discounted notes using the cost recovery method.
 
Provision for Losses on Notes Receivable
 
We assess the collectibility of notes receivable on a periodic basis, which assessment consists primarily of an evaluation of cash flow projections of the borrower to determine whether estimated cash flows are sufficient to repay principal and interest in accordance with the contractual terms of the note. We update our cash flow projections of the borrowers annually, and more frequently for certain loans depending on facts and circumstances. We recognize impairments on notes receivable when it is probable that principal and interest will not be received in accordance with the contractual terms of the loan. Factors that affect this assessment include the fair value of the partnership’s real estate, pending transactions to refinance the partnership’s senior obligations or sell the partnership’s real estate, and market conditions (current and forecasted) related to a particular asset. The amount of the impairment to be recognized generally is based on the fair value of the partnership’s real estate that represents the primary source of loan repayment. In certain instances where other sources of cash flow are available to repay the loan, the impairment is measured by discounting the estimated cash flows at the loan’s original effective interest rate.
 
During the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 we recorded net provisions for losses on notes receivable of $0.9 million, $21.5 million and $17.6 million, respectively. As discussed in Provision for Losses on Notes Receivable within the preceding discussion of our Results of Operations, provisions for losses on notes receivable in 2009 and 2008 include impairment losses of $20.7 million ($12.4 million net of tax) and $16.3 million ($10.0 million net of tax), respectively, on our investment in Casden Properties LLC, which we account for as a note receivable. We will continue to evaluate the collectibility of these notes, and we will adjust related allowances in the future due to changes in market conditions and other factors.
 
Capitalized Costs
 
We capitalize costs, including certain indirect costs, incurred in connection with our capital additions activities, including redevelopment and construction projects, other tangible property improvements and replacements of existing property components. Included in these capitalized costs are payroll costs associated with time spent by site employees in connection with the planning, execution and control of all capital additions activities at the property level. We characterize as “indirect costs” an allocation of certain department costs, including payroll, at the area operations and corporate levels that clearly relate to capital additions activities. We capitalize interest, property taxes and insurance during periods in which redevelopment and construction projects are in progress. We charge to expense as incurred costs that do not relate to capital additions activities, including ordinary repairs, maintenance, resident turnover costs and general and administrative expenses (see Capital Additions and Related Depreciation in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8).
 
For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, for continuing and discontinued operations, we capitalized $11.6 million, $9.8 million and $25.7 million of interest costs, respectively, and $25.3 million, $40.0 million and $78.1 million of site payroll and indirect costs, respectively. The reductions from 2008 to 2010 are primarily due to a reduced level of redevelopment activities.
 
Funds From Operations
 
Funds From Operations, or FFO, is a non-GAAP financial measure that we believe, when considered with the financial statements determined in accordance with GAAP, is helpful to investors in understanding our performance


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because it captures features particular to real estate performance by recognizing that real estate generally appreciates over time or maintains residual value to a much greater extent than do other depreciable assets such as machinery, computers or other personal property. The Board of Governors of the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts, or NAREIT, defines FFO as net income (loss), computed in accordance with GAAP, excluding gains from sales of depreciable property, plus depreciation and amortization, and after adjustments for unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures. Adjustments for unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures are calculated to reflect FFO on the same basis. We compute FFO for all periods presented in accordance with the guidance set forth by NAREIT’s April 1, 2002, White Paper, which we refer to as the White Paper. We calculate FFO attributable to Aimco common stockholders (diluted) by subtracting redemption or repurchase related preferred stock issuance costs and dividends on preferred stock and adding back dividends/distributions on dilutive preferred securities and premiums or discounts on preferred stock redemptions or repurchases. FFO should not be considered an alternative to net income (loss) or net cash flows from operating activities, as determined in accordance with GAAP, as an indication of our performance or as a measure of liquidity. FFO is not necessarily indicative of cash available to fund future cash needs. In addition, although FFO is a measure used for comparability in assessing the performance of REITs, there can be no assurance that our basis for computing FFO is comparable with that of other REITs.
 
In addition to FFO, we compute an alternate measure of FFO, which we refer to as Pro forma FFO and which is FFO attributable to Aimco common stockholders (diluted), excluding operating real estate impairments and preferred equity redemption related amounts (adjusted for noncontrolling interests). Both operating real estate impairment losses and preferred equity redemption related amounts are items that periodically affect our operating results. We exclude operating real estate impairment losses, net of related income tax benefits and noncontrolling interests, from our calculation of Pro forma FFO because we believe the inclusion of such losses in FFO is inconsistent with the treatment of gains on the disposition of operating real estate, which are not included in FFO. We exclude preferred equity redemption related amounts (gains or losses) from our calculation of Pro forma FFO because such amounts are not representative of our operating results. Similar to FFO, we believe Pro forma FFO is helpful to investors in understanding our performance because it captures features particular to real estate performance by recognizing that real estate generally appreciates over time or maintains residual value to a much greater extent than do other depreciating assets such as machinery, computers or other personal property. Not all REITs present an alternate measure of FFO similar to our Pro forma FFO measure and there can be no assurance our basis for calculating Pro forma FFO is comparable to those of other REITs that do provide such a measure.


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For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, our FFO and Pro forma FFO are calculated as follows (in thousands):
 
                         
    2010     2009     2008  
 
Net (loss) income attributable to Aimco common stockholders(1)
  $ (125,318 )   $ (114,840 )   $ 351,314  
Adjustments:
                       
Depreciation and amortization
    426,060       427,666       376,473  
Depreciation and amortization related to non-real estate assets
    (14,552 )     (16,563 )     (17,267 )
Depreciation of rental property related to noncontrolling partners and unconsolidated entities(2)
    (46,318 )     (38,219 )     (25,616 )
Loss (gain) on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other, net of noncontrolling partners’ interests(2)
    623       (12,845 )     (97,993 )
Income tax expense (benefit) arising from disposition of unconsolidated real estate and other
    8       1,582       (433 )
Deficit distributions to noncontrolling partners(3)
                38,124  
Discontinued operations:
                       
Gain on dispositions of real estate, net of noncontrolling partners’ interest(2)
    (74,169 )     (166,146 )     (618,108 )
Depreciation of rental property, net of noncontrolling partners’ interest(2)
    7,973       59,845       121,208  
Deficit distributions to noncontrolling partners, net(3)
                (30,798 )
Income tax expense arising from disposals
    8,819       5,788       43,146  
Noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership’s share of above adjustments(4)
    (21,521 )     (19,509 )     21,667  
Preferred stock dividends
    52,079       52,215       55,190  
Preferred stock redemption related amounts
    1,511       (1,649 )     (1,482 )
Amounts allocable to participating securities(5)
                6,985  
                         
FFO
  $ 215,195     $ 177,325     $ 222,410  
Preferred stock dividends
    (52,079 )     (52,215 )     (55,190 )
Preferred stock redemption related amounts
    (1,511 )     1,649       1,482  
Amounts allocable to participating securities(5)
    (655 )     (773 )     (6,985 )
Dividends/distributions on dilutive preferred securities
                4,292  
                         
FFO attributable to Aimco common stockholders — diluted
  $ 160,950     $ 125,986     $ 166,009  
Operating real estate impairment losses, net of noncontrolling partners’ interest and related income tax benefit(6)
    17,325       59,250       26,905  
Preferred equity redemption related amounts(7)
    (254 )     (1,649 )     (1,482 )
Noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership’s share of above adjustments
    (1,191 )     (4,304 )     (2,474 )
Amounts allocable to participating securities(5)
    (82 )     (448 )      
                         
Pro forma FFO attributable to Aimco common stockholders — diluted
  $ 176,748     $ 178,835     $ 188,958  
                         
FFO and Pro forma FFO attributable to Aimco common stockholders — diluted(8)
                       
Weighted average common shares outstanding — diluted (earnings per share)
    116,369       114,301       88,690  
Dilutive common share equivalents
    324       1,262       1,137  
Dilutive preferred securities
                1,490  
                         
Total
    116,693       115,563       91,317  
                         
 
 
Notes:
 
(1) Represents the numerator for calculating basic earnings per common share in accordance with GAAP (see Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8).
 
(2) “Noncontrolling partners” refers to noncontrolling partners in our consolidated real estate partnerships.
 
(3) Prior to our adoption of the provisions of SFAS 160, which are codified in FASB ASC Topic 810 (see Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8), we recognized deficit distributions to noncontrolling partners as charges in our statement of operations when cash was distributed to a noncontrolling partner in a consolidated partnership in excess of the positive balance in such partner’s noncontrolling interest balance. We recorded these charges for GAAP purposes even though there was no economic effect or cost. Deficit distributions to noncontrolling partners occurred when the fair value of the underlying real estate exceeded its depreciated net book value because the underlying real estate had appreciated or maintained its value. As a result, the recognition of expense for deficit distributions to noncontrolling partners represented, in substance, either (a) our recognition of depreciation previously allocated to the noncontrolling partner or (b) a payment related to the noncontrolling partner’s share of real estate appreciation. Based on White Paper guidance that requires real estate depreciation and gains to be excluded from FFO, we added back deficit distributions and subtracted related recoveries in our reconciliation of net income to FFO. Subsequent to our adoption of


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SFAS 160, effective January 1, 2009, we may reduce the balance of noncontrolling interests below zero in such situations and we are no longer required to recognize such charges in our statement of operations.
 
(4) During the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, the Aimco Operating Partnership had 6,037,616, 6,534,140 and 7,191,199 common OP Units outstanding and 2,340,029, 2,344,719 and 2,367,629 High Performance Units outstanding.
 
(5) Amounts allocable to participating securities represent dividends declared and any amounts of undistributed earnings allocable to participating securities. See Note 2 and Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further information regarding participating securities.
 
(6) On October 1, 2003, NAREIT clarified its definition of FFO to include operating real estate impairment losses, which previously had been added back to calculate FFO. Although Aimco’s presentation conforms with the NAREIT definition, Aimco considers such approach to be inconsistent with the treatment of gains on dispositions of operating real estate, which are not included in FFO.
 
(7) In accordance with the Securities and Exchange Commission’s July 31, 2003 interpretation of the Emerging Issues Task Force Topic D-42, Aimco includes preferred stock redemption related amounts in FFO. As a result, FFO for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 includes redemption discounts, net of issuance costs, of $0.3 million, $1.6 million and $1.5 million, respectively, which we exclude from our calculation of Pro forma FFO.
 
(8) Represents the denominator for earnings per common share — diluted, calculated in accordance with GAAP, plus common share equivalents and preferred securities that are dilutive for FFO and Pro forma FFO.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Liquidity is the ability to meet present and future financial obligations. Our primary source of liquidity is cash flow from our operations. Additional sources are proceeds from property sales, proceeds from refinancings of existing property loans, borrowings under new property loans and borrowings under our revolving credit facility.
 
Our principal uses for liquidity include normal operating activities, payments of principal and interest on outstanding property debt, capital expenditures, dividends paid to stockholders and distributions paid to noncontrolling interest partners and acquisitions of, and investments in, properties. We use our cash and cash equivalents and our cash provided by operating activities to meet short-term liquidity needs. In the event that our cash and cash equivalents and cash provided by operating activities are not sufficient to cover our short-term liquidity demands, we have additional means, such as short-term borrowing availability and proceeds from property sales and refinancings, to help us meet our short-term liquidity demands. We may use our revolving credit facility for general corporate purposes and to fund investments on an interim basis. We expect to meet our long-term liquidity requirements, such as debt maturities and property acquisitions, through long-term borrowings, primarily secured, the issuance of equity securities (including OP Units), the sale of properties and cash generated from operations.
 
The availability of credit and its related effect on the overall economy may affect our liquidity and future financing activities, both through changes in interest rates and access to financing. Currently, interest rates are low compared to historical levels, many lenders have reentered the market, and the CMBS market is showing signs of recovery. However, any adverse changes in the lending environment could negatively affect our liquidity. We believe we mitigate this exposure through our continued focus on reducing our short and intermediate term maturity risk, by refinancing such loans with long-dated, fixed-rate property loans. If property financing options become unavailable for our debt needs, we may consider alternative sources of liquidity, such as reductions in certain capital spending or proceeds from asset dispositions.
 
As further discussed in Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, we are subject to interest rate risk associated with certain variable rate liabilities and preferred stock. At December 31, 2010, we estimate that a 1.0% increase in 30-day LIBOR with constant credit risk spreads would reduce our net income (or increase our net loss) attributable to Aimco common stockholders by approximately $3.9 million on an annual basis. The effect of an increase in 30-day LIBOR may be mitigated by the effect of our variable rate assets.


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As further discussed in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8, we use total rate of return swaps as a financing product to lower our cost of borrowing through conversion of fixed-rate debt to variable-rates. The cost of financing through these arrangements is generally lower than the fixed rate on the debt. As of December 31, 2010, we had total rate of return swap positions with two financial institutions with notional amounts totaling $277.3 million. Swaps with notional amounts of $248.1 million and $29.2 million had maturity dates in May 2012 and October 2012, respectively. During the year ended December 31, 2010, we received net cash receipts of $20.9 million under the total return swaps, which positively affected our liquidity. To the extent interest rates increase above the fixed rates on the underlying borrowings, our obligations under the total return swaps will negatively affect our liquidity.
 
During 2010, we refinanced certain of the underlying borrowings subject to total rate of return swaps with long-dated, fixed-rate property debt, and we expect to do the same with certain of the underlying borrowings in 2011. The average effective interest rate associated with our borrowings subject to the total rate of return swaps was 1.6% at December 31, 2010. To the extent we are successful in refinancing additional of the borrowings subject to the total rate of return swaps during 2011, we anticipate the interest cost associated with these borrowings will increase, which would negatively affect our liquidity.
 
We periodically evaluate counterparty credit risk associated with these arrangements. In the event a counterparty were to default under these arrangements, loss of the net interest benefit we generally receive under these arrangements, which is equal to the difference between the fixed rate we receive and the variable rate we pay, may adversely affect our liquidity. However, at the current time, we have concluded we do not have material exposure.
 
The total rate of return swaps require specified loan-to-value ratios. In the event the values of the real estate properties serving as collateral under these agreements decline or if we sell properties in the collateral pool with low loan-to-value ratios, certain of our consolidated subsidiaries have an obligation to pay down the debt or provide additional collateral pursuant to the swap agreements, which may adversely affect our cash flows. The obligation to provide collateral is limited to these subsidiaries and is non-recourse to us. At December 31, 2010, these subsidiaries were not required to provide cash collateral based on the loan-to-value ratios of the real estate properties serving as collateral under these agreements.
 
See Derivative Financial Instruments in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information regarding these arrangements, including the current swap maturity dates and disclosures regarding fair value measurements.
 
As of December 31, 2010, we had the capacity to borrow $260.3 million pursuant to our $300.0 million revolving credit facility (after giving effect to $39.7 million outstanding for undrawn letters of credit).
 
At December 31, 2010, we had $111.3 million in cash and cash equivalents, an increase of $30.1 million from December 31, 2009. At December 31, 2010, we had $201.4 million of restricted cash, a decrease of $17.3 million from December 31, 2009. Restricted cash primarily consists of reserves and escrows held by lenders for bond sinking funds, capital additions, property taxes and insurance. In addition, cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash are held by partnerships that are not presented on a consolidated basis. The following discussion relates to changes in cash due to operating, investing and financing activities, which are presented in our consolidated statements of cash flows in Item 8.
 
Operating Activities
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, our net cash provided by operating activities of $257.5 million was primarily related to operating income from our consolidated properties, which is affected primarily by rental rates, occupancy levels and operating expenses related to our portfolio of properties, in excess of payments of operating accounts payable and accrued liabilities, including amounts related to our organizational restructuring. Cash provided by operating activities increased $23.7 million compared with the year ended December 31, 2009, primarily due to decreases in interest paid and other working capital expenditures, including payments related to our restructuring accruals, in 2010 as compared to 2009, partially offset by a decrease in property net operating income, primarily due to property sales during 2009 and 2010.


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Investing Activities
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, our net cash provided by investing activities of $86.4 million consisted primarily of proceeds from disposition of real estate and partnership interests, partially offset by capital expenditures.
 
Although we hold all of our properties for investment, we sell properties when they do not meet our investment criteria or are located in areas that we believe do not justify our continued investment when compared to alternative uses for our capital. During the year ended December 31, 2010, we sold 51 consolidated properties. These properties were sold for an aggregate sales price of $402.5 million, generating proceeds totaling $387.9 million after the payment of transaction costs and debt prepayment penalties. The $387.9 million is inclusive of debt assumed by buyers. Net cash proceeds from property sales were used primarily to repay or pay down property debt and for other corporate purposes.
 
Capital expenditures totaled $178.9 million during the year ended December 31, 2010, and consisted primarily of Capital Improvements and Capital Replacements, and to a lesser extent included spending for redevelopment projects and casualties. In 2011, we expect to increase our redevelopment spending on conventional properties from approximately $30.0 million in 2010 to approximately $50.0 million to $75.0 million. We generally fund capital additions with cash provided by operating activities, working capital and property sales.
 
Financing Activities
 
For the year ended December 31, 2010, net cash used in financing activities of $313.8 million was primarily attributed to debt principal payments, dividends paid to common and preferred stockholders, distributions to noncontrolling interests and our redemption and repurchase of preferred stock. Proceeds from property loans and our issuance of preferred stock partially offset the cash outflows.
 
Property Debt
 
At December 31, 2010 and 2009, we had $5.5 billion and $5.6 billion, respectively, in consolidated property debt outstanding, which included $240.0 million at December 31, 2009, of property debt classified within liabilities related to assets held for sale. During the year ended December 31, 2010, we refinanced or closed property loans on 23 properties generating $449.4 million of proceeds from borrowings with a weighted average interest rate of 5.42%. Our share of the net proceeds after repayment of existing debt, payment of transaction costs and distributions to limited partners, was $138.9 million. We used these total net proceeds for capital expenditures and other corporate purposes. We intend to continue to refinance property debt primarily as a means of extending current and near term maturities and to finance certain capital projects.
 
Credit Facility
 
We have an Amended and Restated Senior Secured Credit Agreement, as amended, with a syndicate of financial institutions, which we refer to as the Credit Agreement. During 2010, we amended the Credit Agreement to, among other things, increase the revolving commitments from $180.0 million to $300.0 million, extend the maturity from May 2012 to May 2014 (both inclusive of a one year extension option) and reduce the LIBOR floor on the facility’s base interest rate from 2.00% to 1.50%. During 2010, we also repaid in full the remaining $90.0 million term loan that was outstanding as of December 31, 2009.
 
As of December 31, 2010, the Credit Agreement consisted of $300.0 million of revolving loan commitments. Borrowings under the revolving credit facility bear interest based on a pricing grid determined by leverage (either at LIBOR plus 4.25% with a LIBOR floor of 1.50% or, at our option, a base rate equal to the prime rate plus a spread of 3.00%). The revolving credit facility matures May 1, 2013, and may be extended for an additional year, subject to certain conditions, including payment of a 35.0 basis point fee on the total revolving commitments.
 
At December 31, 2010, we had no outstanding borrowings under the revolving credit facility. The amount available under the revolving credit facility at December 31, 2010, was $260.3 million (after giving effect to $39.7 million outstanding for undrawn letters of credit issued under the revolving credit facility). The proceeds of revolving loans are generally used to fund working capital and for other corporate purposes.


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Our Credit Agreement requires us to satisfy covenant ratios of earnings before interest, taxes and depreciation and amortization to debt service and earnings to fixed charges of 1.40:1 and 1.20:1, respectively. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2010, as calculated based on the provisions in our Credit Agreement, we had a ratio of earnings before interest, taxes and depreciation and amortization to debt service of 1.57:1 and a ratio of earnings to fixed charges of 1.33:1. We expect to remain in compliance with these covenants during 2011. In the first quarter of 2012, the covenant ratios of earnings before interest, taxes and depreciation and amortization to debt service and earnings to fixed charges required by our Credit Agreement will increase to 1.50:1 and 1.30:1, respectively.
 
Equity Transactions
 
During the year ended December 31, 2010, we paid cash dividends or distributions totaling $53.4 million, $46.7 million and $10.1 million to preferred stockholders, common stockholders and noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership, respectively.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2010, we sold 4,000,000 shares of our 7.75% Class U Cumulative Preferred Stock for net proceeds of $96.1 million (after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and transaction expenses of $3.3 million), and we sold 600,000 shares of our Common Stock pursuant to an At-The-Market, or ATM, offering program we initiated during 2010, generating $14.4 million of net proceeds. Aimco used the proceeds from the Common Stock issuance primarily to fund the acquisition of noncontrolling limited partnership interests for certain consolidated real estate partnerships.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2010, we repurchased 20 shares, or $10.0 million in liquidation preference, of CRA Preferred Stock for $7.0 million, and primarily using the proceeds from our issuance of preferred stock discussed above, we redeemed the 4,040,000 outstanding shares of our 9.375% Class G Cumulative Preferred Stock for $101.0 million plus accrued and unpaid dividends of $2.2 million.
 
Pursuant to the ATM offering program discussed above, we may issue up to 6.4 million additional shares of our Common Stock. Additionally, we and the Aimco Operating Partnership have a shelf registration statement that provides for the issuance of debt and equity securities by Aimco and debt securities by the Aimco Operating Partnership.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2010, we paid cash distributions of $44.5 million to noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships, primarily related to property sales during 2010 and late 2009.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2010, we acquired the remaining noncontrolling limited partnership interests in two consolidated partnerships, in which our affiliates serve as general partner, for total consideration of $19.9 million. This consideration consisted of $12.5 million in cash, $6.9 million in common OP Units and $0.5 million of other consideration.
 
Contractual Obligations
 
This table summarizes information contained elsewhere in this Annual Report regarding payments due under contractual obligations and commitments as of December 31, 2010 (amounts in thousands):
 
                                         
          Less than
                More than
 
    Total     One Year     1-3 Years     3-5 Years     5 Years  
 
Long-term debt(1)
  $ 5,504,801     $ 288,990     $ 986,396     $ 941,339     $ 3,288,076  
Interest related to long-term debt(2)
    2,223,580       308,220       550,958       447,195       917,207  
Leases for space(3)
    14,400       6,334       5,780       1,436       850  
Other obligations(4)
    3,750       3,750                    
                                         
Total
  $ 7,746,531     $ 607,294     $ 1,543,134     $ 1,389,970     $ 4,206,133  
                                         
 
 
(1) Includes scheduled principal amortization and maturity payments related to our long-term debt.
 
(2) Includes interest related to both fixed rate and variable rate debt. Interest related to variable rate debt is estimated based on the rate effective at December 31, 2010. Refer to Note 6 in the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for a description of average interest rates associated with our debt.


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(3) Inclusive of leased space that has been abandoned as part of our organizational restructuring in 2008.
 
(4) Represents a commitment to fund $3.8 million in second mortgage loans on certain properties in West Harlem, New York City.
 
In addition to the amounts presented in the table above, at December 31, 2010, we had $679.5 million (liquidation value) of perpetual preferred stock outstanding with annual dividend yields ranging from 1.5% (variable) to 8.0%, and $82.6 million (liquidation value) of redeemable preferred units of the Aimco Operating Partnership outstanding with annual distribution yields ranging from 1.8% to 8.8%, or equal to the dividends paid on Common Stock based on the conversion terms. As further discussed in Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, we have a potential obligation to repurchase $20.0 million in liquidation preference our Series A Community Reinvestment Act Preferred Stock over the next two years for $14.0 million.
 
As discussed in Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, we have notes receivable collateralized by second mortgages on certain properties in West Harlem in New York City. In certain circumstances, the obligor under these notes has the ability to put properties to us, which would result in a cash payment of approximately $30.6 million and the assumption of approximately $118.6 million in property debt. The obligor’s right to exercise the put is dependent upon the achievement of specified operating performance thresholds.
 
Additionally, we may enter into commitments to purchase goods and services in connection with the operations of our properties. Those commitments generally have terms of one year or less and reflect expenditure levels comparable to our historical expenditures.
 
Future Capital Needs
 
In addition to the items set forth in “Contractual Obligations” above, we expect to fund any future acquisitions, redevelopment projects, Capital Improvements and Capital Replacements principally with proceeds from property sales (including tax-free exchange proceeds), short-term borrowings, debt and equity financing (including tax credit equity) and operating cash flows.
 
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
We own general and limited partner interests in unconsolidated real estate partnerships, in which our total ownership interests typically range from less than 1% to 50% and in some instances may exceed 50%. There are no lines of credit, side agreements, or any other derivative financial instruments related to or between our unconsolidated real estate partnerships and us and no material exposure to financial guarantees. Accordingly, our maximum risk of loss related to these unconsolidated real estate partnerships is limited to the aggregate carrying amount of our investment in the unconsolidated real estate partnerships and any outstanding notes or accounts receivable as reported in our consolidated financial statements (see Note 4 of the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional information about our investments in unconsolidated real estate partnerships).
 
Item 7A.   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
Our primary market risk exposure relates to changes in base interest rates, credit risk spreads and availability of credit. We are not subject to any other material market rate or price risks. We use predominantly long-term, fixed-rate non-recourse property debt in order to avoid the refunding and repricing risks of short-term borrowings. We use short-term debt financing and working capital primarily to fund short-term uses and acquisitions and generally expect to refinance such borrowings with cash from operating activities, property sales proceeds, long-term debt or equity financings. We use total rate-of-return swaps to obtain the benefit of variable rates on certain of our fixed rate debt instruments. We make limited use of other derivative financial instruments and we do not use them for trading or other speculative purposes.


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As of December 31, 2010, on a consolidated basis, we had approximately $470.3 million of variable-rate indebtedness outstanding and $57.0 million of variable rate preferred stock outstanding. Of the total debt subject to variable interest rates, floating rate tax-exempt bond financing was approximately $374.4 million. Floating rate tax-exempt bond financing is benchmarked against the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association Municipal Swap Index, or SIFMA, rate, which since 1989 has averaged 75% of the 30-day LIBOR rate. If this historical relationship continues, we estimate that an increase in 30-day LIBOR of 100 basis points (75 basis points for tax-exempt interest rates) with constant credit risk spreads would result in net income and net income attributable to Aimco common stockholders being reduced (or the amounts of net loss and net loss attributable to Aimco common stockholders being increased) by $3.9 million on an annual basis.
 
At December 31, 2010, we had approximately $450.4 million in cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and notes receivable, a portion of which bear interest at variable rates indexed to LIBOR-based rates, and which may mitigate the effect of an increase in variable rates on our variable-rate indebtedness and preferred stock discussed above.
 
We estimate the fair value for our debt instruments using present value techniques that include income and market valuation approaches with market rates for debt with the same or similar terms. Present value calculations vary depending on the assumptions used, including the discount rate and estimates of future cash flows. In many cases, the fair value estimates may not be realizable in immediate settlement of the instruments. The estimated aggregate fair value of our consolidated debt (including amounts reported in liabilities related to assets held for sale) was approximately $5.6 billion and $5.7 billion at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. The combined carrying value of our consolidated debt (including amounts reported in liabilities related to assets held for sale) was approximately $5.5 billion and $5.7 billion at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively. See Note 6 and Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further details on our consolidated debt. Refer to Derivative Financial Instruments in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for further discussion regarding certain of our fixed rate debt that is subject to total rate of return swap instruments. If market rates for our fixed-rate debt were higher by 100 basis points with constant credit risk spreads, the estimated fair value of our debt discussed above would have decreased from $5.6 billion to $5.3 billion. If market rates for our debt discussed above were lower by 100 basis points with constant credit risk spreads, the estimated fair value of our fixed-rate debt would have increased from $5.6 billion to $6.0 billion.
 
Item 8.   Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
The independent registered public accounting firm’s report, consolidated financial statements and schedule listed in the accompanying index are filed as part of this report and incorporated herein by this reference. See “Index to Financial Statements” on page F-1 of this Annual Report.
 
Item 9.   Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
 
None.
 
Item 9A.   Controls and Procedures
 
Disclosure Controls and Procedures
 
Our management, with the participation of our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)) as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on such evaluation, our chief executive officer and chief financial officer have concluded that, as of the end of such period, our disclosure controls and procedures are effective.


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Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
 
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Internal control over financial reporting is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act as a process designed by, or under the supervision of, our principal executive and principal financial officers and effected by our Board of Directors, management and other personnel to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and includes those policies and procedures that:
 
  •  pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of assets;
 
  •  provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors; and
 
  •  provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risks that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
Management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in Internal Control-Integrated Framework.
 
Based on their assessment, management concluded that, as of December 31, 2010, our internal control over financial reporting is effective.
 
Our independent registered public accounting firm has issued an attestation report on our internal control over financial reporting.
 
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
 
There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) during the fourth quarter of 2010 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.


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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
Stockholders and Board of Directors Apartment Investment and Management Company
 
We have audited Apartment Investment and Management Company’s (the “Company”) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (the COSO criteria). The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit.
 
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010, based on the COSO criteria.
 
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the related consolidated statements of operations, equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010, and our report dated February 24, 2011 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
 
/s/  Ernst & Young LLP
 
Denver, Colorado
February 24, 2011


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Item 9B.   Other Information
 
None.
 
PART III
 
Item 10.   Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
 
The information required by this item is presented under the captions “Board of Directors and Executive Officers,” “Corporate Governance Matters — Code of Ethics,” “Other Matters — Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance,” “Corporate Governance Matters — Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee,” “Corporate Governance Matters — Audit Committee” and “Corporate Governance Matters — Audit Committee Financial Expert” in the proxy statement for our 2011 annual meeting of stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 11.   Executive Compensation
 
The information required by this item is presented under the captions “Compensation Discussion & Analysis,” “Compensation and Human Resources Committee Report to Stockholders,” “Summary Compensation Table,” “Grants of Plan-Based Awards in 2010,” “Outstanding Equity Awards at Fiscal Year End 2010,” “Option Exercises and Stock Vested in 2010,” “Potential Payments Upon Termination or Change in Control” and “Corporate Governance Matters — Director Compensation” in the proxy statement for our 2011 annual meeting of stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 12.   Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
 
The information required by this item is presented under the captions “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” and “Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans” in the proxy statement for our 2011 annual meeting of stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 13.   Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
 
The information required by this item is presented under the caption “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions” and “Corporate Governance Matters — Independence of Directors” in the proxy statement for our 2011 annual meeting of stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
 
Item 14.   Principal Accountant Fees and Services
 
The information required by this item is presented under the caption “Principal Accountant Fees and Services” in the proxy statement for our 2011 annual meeting of stockholders and is incorporated herein by reference.


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PART IV
 
Item 15.   Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
 
(a)(1)  The financial statements listed in the Index to Financial Statements on Page F-1 of this report are filed as part of this report and incorporated herein by reference.
 
(a)(2)  The financial statement schedule listed in the Index to Financial Statements on Page F-1 of this report is filed as part of this report and incorporated herein by reference.
 
(a)(3)  The Exhibit Index is incorporated herein by reference.
 
INDEX TO EXHIBITS (1)(2)
 
         
Exhibit No.   Description
 
  3 .1   Charter (Exhibit 3.1 to Aimco’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2010, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  3 .2   Amended and Restated Bylaws (Exhibit 3.2 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K dated February 2, 2010, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .1   Fourth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of AIMCO Properties, L.P., dated as of July 29, 1994, as amended and restated as of February 28, 2007 (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2006, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .2   First Amendment to Fourth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of AIMCO Properties, L.P., dated as of December 31, 2007 (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated December 31, 2007, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .3   Second Amendment to the Fourth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of AIMCO Properties, L.P., dated as of July 30, 2009 (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2009, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .4   Third Amendment to the Fourth Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of AIMCO Properties, L.P., dated as of September 2, 2010 (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated September 3, 2010, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .5   Amended and Restated Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of November 2, 2004, by and among Aimco, AIMCO Properties, L.P., AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., and NHP Management Company as the borrowers and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association, and the Lenders listed therein (Exhibit 4.1 to Aimco’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2004, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .6   First Amendment to Amended and Restated Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of June 16, 2005, by and among Aimco, AIMCO Properties, L.P., AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., and NHP Management Company as the borrowers and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association, and the Lenders listed therein (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated June 16, 2005, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .7   Second Amendment to Amended and Restated Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of March 22, 2006, by and among Aimco, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the borrowers, and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association, and the lenders listed therein (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated March 22, 2006, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .8   Third Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of August 31, 2007, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association and the other lenders listed therein (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated August 31, 2007, is incorporated herein by this reference)


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Exhibit No.   Description
 
  10 .9   Fourth Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of September 14, 2007, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association and the other lenders listed therein (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated September 14, 2007, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .10   Fifth Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of September 9, 2008, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association and the other lenders listed therein (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated September 11, 2008, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .11   Sixth Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of May 1, 2009, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent and Bank of America, N.A., Keybank National Association and the other lenders listed therein (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2009, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .12   Seventh Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of August 4, 2009, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein and the lenders party thereto (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated August 6, 2009, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .13   Eighth Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of February 3, 2010, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein and the lenders party thereto (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated February 5, 2010, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .14   Ninth Amendment to Amended and Restated Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of May 14, 2010, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the borrowers, the guarantors and the pledgors named therein and the lenders party thereto (exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2010, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .15   Tenth Amendment to Senior Secured Credit Agreement, dated as of September 29, 2010, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., and AIMCO/Bethesda Holdings, Inc., as the Borrowers, the pledgors and guarantors named therein, Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent, swing line lender and L/C issuer, and the lenders party thereto (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated September 29, 2010, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .16   Master Indemnification Agreement, dated December 3, 2001, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, AIMCO Properties, L.P., XYZ Holdings LLC, and the other parties signatory thereto (Exhibit 2.3 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated December 6, 2001, is incorporated herein by this reference)
  10 .17   Tax Indemnification and Contest Agreement, dated December 3, 2001, by and among Apartment Investment and Management Company, National Partnership Investments, Corp., and XYZ Holdings LLC and the other parties signatory thereto (Exhibit 2.4 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated December 6, 2001, is incorporated herein by this reference)

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Exhibit No.   Description
 
  10 .18   Employment Contract executed on December 29, 2008, by and between AIMCO Properties, L.P. and Terry Considine (Exhibit 10.1 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated December 29, 2008, is incorporated herein by this reference)*
  10 .19   Apartment Investment and Management Company 1997 Stock Award and Incentive Plan (October 1999) (Exhibit 10.26 to Aimco’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 1999, is incorporated herein by this reference)*
  10 .20   Form of Restricted Stock Agreement (1997 Stock Award and Incentive Plan) (Exhibit 10.11 to Aimco’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 1997, is incorporated herein by this reference)*
  10 .21   Form of Incentive Stock Option Agreement (1997 Stock Award and Incentive Plan) (Exhibit 10.42 to Aimco’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 1998, is incorporated herein by this reference)*
  10 .22   2007 Stock Award and Incentive Plan (incorporated by reference to Appendix A to Aimco’s Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 20, 2007)*
  10 .23   Form of Restricted Stock Agreement (Exhibit 10.2 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated April 30, 2007, is incorporated herein by this reference)*
  10 .24   Form of Non-Qualified Stock Option Agreement (Exhibit 10.3 to Aimco’s Current Report on Form 8-K, dated April 30, 2007, is incorporated herein by this reference)*
  10 .25   2007 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (incorporated by reference to Appendix B to Aimco’s Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 20, 2007)*
  21 .1   List of Subsidiaries
  23 .1   Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
  31 .1   Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Securities Exchange Act Rules 13a-14(a)/15d-14(a), as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
  31 .2   Certification of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Securities Exchange Act Rules 13a-14(a)/15d-14(a), as Adopted Pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
  32 .1   Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
  32 .2   Certification Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as Adopted Pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
  99 .1   Agreement re: disclosure of long-term debt instruments
  101 .INS   XBRL Instance Document
  101 .SCH   XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
  101 .CAL   XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
  101 .LAB   XBRL Taxonomy Extension Labels Linkbase Document
  101 .PRE   XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document
  101 .DEF   XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document
 
 
(1) Schedule and supplemental materials to the exhibits have been omitted but will be provided to the Securities and Exchange Commission upon request.
 
(2) The file reference number for all exhibits is 001-13232, and all such exhibits remain available pursuant to the Records Control Schedule of the Securities and Exchange Commission.
 
*  Management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement

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SIGNATURES
 
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 
Apartment Investment And
Management Company
 
  By: 
/s/  Terry Considine
Terry Considine
Chairman of the Board and
Chief Executive Officer
 
Date: February 24, 2011
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
 
             
Signature   Title   Date
 
         
/s/  Terry Considine

Terry Considine
  Chairman of the Board and
Chief Executive Officer
(principal executive officer)
  February 24, 2011
         
/s/  Ernest M. Freedman

Ernest M. Freedman
  Executive Vice President and
Chief Financial Officer
(principal financial officer)
  February 24, 2011
         
/s/  Paul Beldin

Paul Beldin
  Senior Vice President and
Chief Accounting Officer
(principal accounting officer)
  February 24, 2011
         
/s/  James N. Bailey

James N. Bailey
  Director   February 24, 2011
         
/s/  Richard S. Ellwood

Richard S. Ellwood
  Director   February 24, 2011
         
/s/  Thomas L. Keltner

Thomas L. Keltner
  Director   February 24, 2011
         
/s/  J. Landis Martin

J. Landis Martin
  Director   February 24, 2011
         
/s/  Robert A. Miller

Robert A. Miller
  Director   February 24, 2011
         
/s/  Kathleen M. Nelson

Kathleen M. Nelson
  Director   February 24, 2011
         
/s/  Michael A. Stein

Michael A. Stein
  Director   February 24, 2011


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APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY
 
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
         
    Page
 
Financial Statements:
       
    F-2  
    F-3  
    F-4  
    F-5  
    F-6  
    F-8  
Financial Statement Schedule:
       
    F-53  
All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the financial statements or notes thereto.
       


F-1


Table of Contents

 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
Stockholders and Board of Directors Apartment Investment and Management Company
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Apartment Investment and Management Company (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the related consolidated statements of operations, equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010. Our audits also included the financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying Index to Financial Statements. These financial statements and schedule are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these financial statements and schedule based on our audits.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company at December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010, in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles. Also, in our opinion, the related financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly, in all material respects the information set forth therein.
 
As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, during 2010 the Company adopted the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, Accounting Standards Update 2009-17, Improvements to Financial Reporting by Enterprises Involved with Variable Interest Entities, and during 2009 adopted FASB Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 160, Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Financial Statements — an amendment of ARB No. 51 (codified in FASB Accounting Standards Codification Topic 810).
 
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 24, 2011 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
 
/s/  ERNST & YOUNG LLP
 
Denver, Colorado
February 24, 2011


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APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
As of December 31, 2010 and 2009
(In thousands, except share data)
 
                 
    2010     2009  
 
ASSETS
Real estate:
               
Buildings and improvements
  $ 7,328,734     $ 7,130,309  
Land
    2,139,431       2,121,044  
                 
Total real estate
    9,468,165       9,251,353  
Less accumulated depreciation
    (2,934,912 )     (2,540,026 )
                 
Net real estate ($867,053 and $850,398 related to VIEs)
    6,533,253       6,711,327  
Cash and cash equivalents ($34,808 and $23,366 related to VIEs)
    111,325       81,260  
Restricted cash ($55,186 and $56,179 related to VIEs)
    201,406       218,660  
Accounts receivable, net ($13,582 and $20,766 related to VIEs)
    49,855       59,822  
Accounts receivable from affiliates, net
    8,392       23,744  
Deferred financing costs, net
    48,032       50,282  
Notes receivable from unconsolidated real estate partnerships, net
    10,896       14,295  
Notes receivable from non-affiliates, net
    126,726       125,269  
Investment in unconsolidated real estate partnerships ($54,374 and $99,460 related to VIEs)
    59,282       105,324  
Other assets
    170,663       185,890  
Deferred income tax assets, net
    58,736       42,015  
Assets held for sale
          288,580  
                 
Total assets
  $ 7,378,566     $ 7,906,468  
                 
 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
Non-recourse property tax-exempt bond financing ($212,245 and $211,691 related to VIEs)
  $ 514,506     $ 574,926  
Non-recourse property loans payable ($442,055 and $385,453 related to VIEs)
    4,943,277       4,761,493  
Term loan
          90,000  
Other borrowings ($15,486 and $15,665 related to VIEs)
    47,018       53,057  
                 
Total indebtedness
    5,504,801       5,479,476  
                 
Accounts payable
    27,322       29,819  
Accrued liabilities and other ($79,170 and $62,503 related to VIEs)
    250,106       286,328  
Deferred income
    150,815       178,878  
Security deposits
    35,322       34,052  
Liabilities related to assets held for sale
          246,556  
                 
Total liabilities
    5,968,366       6,255,109  
                 
Preferred noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership
    83,428       86,656  
Preferred stock subject to repurchase agreement (Note 11)
    20,000       30,000  
Commitments and contingencies (Note 8)
           
Equity:
               
Perpetual Preferred Stock (Note 11)
    657,601       660,500  
Class A Common Stock, $0.01 par value, 422,157,736 and 426,157,736 shares authorized, 117,642,872 and 116,479,791 shares issued and outstanding, at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively
    1,176       1,165  
Additional paid-in capital
    3,070,882       3,072,665  
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
    (2,076 )     (1,138 )
Notes due on common stock purchases
    (586 )     (1,392 )
Distributions in excess of earnings
    (2,680,955 )     (2,492,082 )
                 
Total Aimco equity
    1,046,042       1,239,718  
                 
Noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships
    291,458       316,177  
Common noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership
    (30,728 )     (21,192 )
                 
Total equity
    1,306,772       1,534,703  
                 
Total liabilities and equity
  $ 7,378,566     $ 7,906,468  
                 
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


F-3


Table of Contents

APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
For the Years Ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
                         
    2010     2009     2008  
 
REVENUES:
                       
Rental and other property revenues
  $ 1,109,381     $ 1,081,250     $ 1,080,048  
Asset management and tax credit revenues
    35,553       49,853       98,830  
                         
Total revenues
    1,144,934       1,131,103       1,178,878  
                         
OPERATING EXPENSES:
                       
Property operating expenses
    510,179       506,803       519,241  
Investment management expenses
    14,487       15,779       24,784  
Depreciation and amortization
    426,060       427,666       376,473  
Provision for operating real estate impairment losses
    352       2,329        
Provision for impairment losses on real estate development assets
                91,138  
General and administrative expenses
    53,365       56,640       80,376  
Other expenses, net
    9,982       14,950       21,749  
Restructuring costs
          11,241       22,802  
                         
Total operating expenses
    1,014,425       1,035,408       1,136,563  
                         
Operating income
    130,509       95,695       42,315  
Interest income
    11,131       9,091       19,543  
Provision for losses on notes receivable, net
    (949 )     (21,549 )     (17,577 )
Interest expense
    (312,576 )     (312,534 )     (311,448 )
Equity in losses of unconsolidated real estate partnerships
    (23,112 )     (11,401 )     (4,736 )
Gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other, net
    10,675       21,570       97,403  
                         
Loss before income taxes and discontinued operations
    (184,322 )     (219,128 )     (174,500 )
Income tax benefit
    18,433       17,487       56,574  
                         
Loss from continuing operations
    (165,889 )     (201,641 )     (117,926 )
Income from discontinued operations, net
    76,265       156,841       744,928  
                         
Net (loss) income
    (89,624 )     (44,800 )     627,002  
Noncontrolling interests:
                       
Net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships
    13,301       (22,541 )     (155,727 )
Net income attributable to preferred noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership
    (4,964 )     (6,288 )     (7,646 )
Net loss (income) attributable to common noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership
    9,559       9,355       (51,622 )
                         
Total noncontrolling interests
    17,896       (19,474 )     (214,995 )
                         
Net (loss) income attributable to Aimco
    (71,728 )     (64,274 )     412,007  
Net income attributable to Aimco preferred stockholders
    (53,590 )     (50,566 )     (53,708 )
Net income attributable to participating securities
                (6,985 )
                         
Net (loss) income attributable to Aimco common stockholders
  $ (125,318 )   $ (114,840 )   $ 351,314  
                         
Earnings (loss) per common share — basic and diluted:
                       
Loss from continuing operations attributable to Aimco common stockholders
  $ (1.48 )   $ (1.78 )   $ (2.09 )
Income from discontinued operations attributable to Aimco common stockholders
    0.40       0.78       6.05  
                         
Net (loss) income attributable to Aimco common stockholders
  $ (1.08 )   $ (1.00 )   $ 3.96  
                         
Weighted average common shares outstanding — basic and diluted
    116,369       114,301       88,690  
                         
Dividends declared per common share
  $ 0.30     $ 0.40     $ 7.48  
                         
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


F-4


Table of Contents

 
APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EQUITY
For the Years Ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008
(In thousands)
 
                                                                                         
                                  Accumulated
    Notes Due on
                         
    Preferred Stock     Common Stock     Additional
    Other
    Common
    Distributions in
    Total
             
    Shares
          Shares
          Paid-in
    Comprehensive
    Stock
    Excess of
    Aimco
    Noncontrolling
    Total
 
    Issued     Amount     Issued     Amount     Capital     Loss     Purchases     Earnings     Equity     Interests     Equity  
 
Balances at December 31, 2007
    24,940     $ 723,500       91,551     $ 915     $ 2,873,033     $ (684 )   $ (5,441 )   $ (2,019,718 )   $ 1,571,605     $ 476,751     $ 2,048,356  
Repurchase of Preferred Stock
          (27,000 )                 678                   1,482       (24,840 )           (24,840 )
Redemption of Aimco Operating Partnership units for Common Stock
                114       1       4,181                         4,182       (4,182 )      
Repurchases of Common Stock and common partnership units
                (13,919 )     (139 )     (473,393 )                       (473,532 )     (3,192 )     (476,724 )
Repayment of notes receivable from officers
                                        1,458             1,458             1,458  
Officer and employee stock awards and purchases, net
                106       1       651             376             1,028             1,028  
Amortization of stock option and restricted stock compensation cost
                            17,603                         17,603             17,603  
Common Stock issued pursuant to Special Dividends
                22,780       228       487,249                         487,477             487,477  
Contributions from noncontrolling interests
                                                          6,854       6,854  
Adjustment to noncontrolling interests from consolidation of entities
                                                          14,969       14,969  
Change in accumulated other comprehensive loss
                                  (1,565 )                 (1,565 )     190       (1,375 )
Net income
                                              412,007       412,007       207,349       619,356  
Distributions to noncontrolling interests
                                                          (318,014 )     (318,014 )
Common Stock dividends
                                              (674,185 )     (674,185 )           (674,185 )
Preferred Stock dividends
                                              (55,214 )     (55,214 )           (55,214 )
                                                                                         
Balances at December 31, 2008
    24,940       696,500       100,632       1,006       2,910,002       (2,249 )     (3,607 )     (2,335,628 )     1,266,024       380,725       1,646,749  
                                                                                         
Repurchase of Preferred Stock
          (6,000 )                 151                   1,800       (4,049 )           (4,049 )
Reclassification of preferred stock to temporary equity
          (30,000 )                                         (30,000 )           (30,000 )
Redemption or Conversion of Aimco Operating Partnership units for Common Stock
                527       5       7,080                         7,085       (7,085 )      
Repurchases of Common Stock and common partnership units
                                                          (980 )     (980 )
Repayment of notes receivable from officers
                                        763             763             763  
Officer and employee stock awards and purchases, net
                (227 )     (2 )     (1,476 )           1,452             (26 )           (26 )
Amortization of stock option and restricted stock compensation cost
                            8,007                         8,007             8,007  
Common Stock issued pursuant to Special Dividends
                15,548       156       148,590                         148,746             148,746  
Expense for dividends on forfeited shares and other
                            311                   2,917       3,228       (990 )     2,238  
Contributions from noncontrolling interests
                                                          5,535       5,535  
Adjustment to noncontrolling interests from consolidation of entities
                                                          (1,151 )     (1,151 )
Change in accumulated other comprehensive loss
                                  1,111                   1,111       297       1,408  
Net loss
                                              (64,274 )     (64,274 )     13,186       (51,088 )
Distributions to noncontrolling interests
                                                          (94,552 )     (94,552 )
Common Stock dividends
                                              (46,202 )     (46,202 )           (46,202 )
Preferred Stock dividends
                                              (50,695 )     (50,695 )           (50,695 )
                                                                                         
Balances at December 31, 2009
    24,940       660,500       116,480       1,165       3,072,665       (1,138 )     (1,392 )     (2,492,082 )     1,239,718       294,985       1,534,703  
                                                                                         
Issuance of Preferred Stock
    4,000       98,101                   (3,346 )                       94,755             94,755  
Repurchase of Preferred Stock
    (4,040 )     (101,000 )                 4,511                   (1,511 )     (98,000 )           (98,000 )
Issuance of Common Stock
                600       6       14,040                         14,046             14,046  
Aimco Operating Partnership units issued in exchange for noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships
                                                          6,854       6,854  
Redemption of Aimco Operating Partnership units
                                                          (3,571 )     (3,571 )
Repayment of notes receivable from officers
                            4             573             577             577  
Officer and employee stock awards and purchases, net
                555       5       1,920             251             2,176             2,176  
Amortization of stock option and restricted stock compensation cost
                            8,182                         8,182             8,182  
Contributions from noncontrolling interests
                                                          7,422       7,422  
Adjustment to noncontrolling interests from consolidation of entities
                                                          6,324       6,324  
Adjustment to noncontrolling interests related to revision of investment balances (Note 2)
                                                          (38,718 )     (38,718 )
Effect of changes in ownership for consolidated entities (Note 3)
                            (27,391 )                       (27,391 )     5,533       (21,858 )
Cumulative effect of a change in accounting principle (Note 2)
                                              (27,724 )     (27,724 )     50,879       23,155  
Change in accumulated other comprehensive loss
                                  (938 )                 (938 )     (167 )     (1,105 )
Other, net
                8             297             (18 )     (751 )     (472 )     1,876       1,404  
Net loss
                                              (71,728 )     (71,728 )     (22,860 )     (94,588 )
Distributions to noncontrolling interests
                                                          (47,827 )     (47,827 )
Common Stock dividends
                                              (35,080 )     (35,080 )           (35,080 )
Preferred Stock dividends
                                              (52,079 )     (52,079 )           (52,079 )
                                                                                         
Balances at December 31, 2010
    24,900     $ 657,601       117,643     $ 1,176     $ 3,070,882     $ (2,076 )   $ (586 )   $ (2,680,955 )   $ 1,046,042     $ 260,730     $ 1,306,772  
                                                                                         
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


F-5


Table of Contents

 
APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
For the Years Ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008
(In thousands)
 
 
                         
    2010     2009     2008  
 
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
                       
Net (loss) income
  $ (89,624 )   $ (44,800 )   $ 627,002  
                         
Adjustments to reconcile net (loss) income to net cash provided by operating activities:
                       
Depreciation and amortization
    426,060       427,666       376,473  
Provision for impairment losses on real estate development assets
                91,138  
Provision for operating real estate impairment losses
    352       2,329        
Equity in losses of unconsolidated real estate partnerships
    23,112       11,401       4,736  
Gain on dispositions of unconsolidated real estate and other
    (10,675 )     (21,570 )     (97,403 )
Income tax benefit
    (18,433 )     (17,487 )     (56,574 )
Stock-based compensation expense
    7,331       6,666       13,833  
Amortization of deferred loan costs and other
    9,742       10,399       9,432  
Distributions of earnings from unconsolidated entities
    1,231       4,893       14,619  
Discontinued operations:
                       
Depreciation and amortization
    10,773       67,902       139,075  
Gain on disposition of real estate
    (94,901 )     (221,770 )     (800,270 )
Other adjustments to income from discontinued operations
    20,210       52,531       70,585  
Changes in operating assets and operating liabilities:
                       
Accounts receivable
    25,561       27,067       4,848  
Other assets
    16,567       18,954       75,211  
Accounts payable, accrued liabilities and other
    (69,806 )     (90,369 )     (32,337 )
                         
Total adjustments
    347,124       278,612       (186,634 )
                         
Net cash provided by operating activities
    257,500       233,812       440,368  
                         
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
                       
Purchases of real estate
                (112,655 )
Capital expenditures
    (178,929 )     (300,344 )     (665,233 )
Proceeds from dispositions of real estate
    218,571       875,931       2,060,344  
Proceeds from sale of interests and distributions from real estate partnerships
    19,707       25,067       94,277  
Purchases of partnership interests and other assets
    (9,399 )     (6,842 )     (28,121 )
Originations of notes receivable
    (1,190 )     (5,778 )     (6,911 )
Proceeds from repayment of notes receivable
    5,699       5,264       8,929  
Net increase in cash from consolidation and deconsolidation of entities
    13,128       98       241  
Other investing activities
    18,788       36,858       (6,002 )
                         
Net cash provided by investing activities
    86,375       630,254       1,344,869  
                         
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
                       
Proceeds from property loans
    449,384       772,443       949,549  
Principal repayments on property loans
    (426,662 )     (1,076,318 )     (1,291,543 )
Proceeds from tax-exempt bond financing
          15,727       50,100  
Principal repayments on tax-exempt bond financing
    (66,466 )     (157,862 )     (217,361 )
Payments on term loans
    (90,000 )     (310,000 )     (75,000 )
(Payments on) proceeds from other borrowings
    (13,469 )     (40,085 )     21,367  
Proceeds from issuance of preferred stock
    96,110              
Proceeds from issuance of Common Stock
    14,350              
Repurchases and redemptions of preferred stock
    (108,000 )     (4,200 )     (24,840 )
Repurchases of Class A Common Stock
                (502,296 )
Proceeds from Class A Common Stock option exercises
    1,806             481  
Payment of Class A Common Stock dividends
    (46,729 )     (95,335 )     (212,286 )
Payment of preferred stock dividends
    (53,435 )     (52,215 )     (55,215 )
Payment of distributions to noncontrolling interests
    (54,557 )     (120,361 )     (330,582 )
Other financing activities
    (16,142 )     (14,276 )     (8,396 )
                         
Net cash used in financing activities
    (313,810 )     (1,082,482 )     (1,696,022 )
                         
NET INCREASE (DECREASE) IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
    30,065       (218,416 )     89,215  
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AT BEGINNING OF YEAR
    81,260       299,676       210,461  
                         
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AT END OF YEAR
  $ 111,325     $ 81,260     $ 299,676  
                         
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


F-6


Table of Contents

APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
For the Years Ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008
(In thousands)
 
                         
    2010     2009     2008  
 
SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOW INFORMATION:
                       
Interest paid
  $ 311,432     $ 348,341     $ 434,645  
Cash paid for income taxes
    1,899       4,560       13,780  
Non-cash transactions associated with the disposition of real estate:
                       
Secured debt assumed in connection with the disposition of real estate
    157,629       314,265       157,394  
Issuance of notes receivable in connection with the disposition of real estate
    4,544       3,605       10,372  
Non-cash transactions associated with consolidation and deconsolidation of real estate partnerships:
                       
Real estate, net
    80,629       6,058       25,830  
Investments in and notes receivable primarily from affiliated entities
    41,903       4,326       4,497  
Restricted cash and other assets
    3,290       (1,682 )     5,483  
Non-recourse debt
    61,211       2,031       22,036  
Noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships
    57,099       2,225       11,896  
Accounts payable, accrued and other liabilities
    20,640       4,544       2,124  
Other non-cash transactions:
                       
Redemption of common OP Units for Class A Common Stock
          7,085       4,182  
Cancellation of notes receivable from officers for Class A Common Stock purchases
    (251 )     (1,452 )     (385 )
Common Stock issued pursuant to special dividends (Note 11)
          (148,746 )     (487,477 )
Issuance of common OP Units for acquisition of noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships (Note 3)
    6,854              
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


F-7


Table of Contents

APARTMENT INVESTMENT AND MANAGEMENT COMPANY

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
December 31, 2010
 
NOTE 1 — Organization
 
Apartment Investment and Management Company, or Aimco, is a Maryland corporation incorporated on January 10, 1994. We are a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust, or REIT. Our principal financial objective is to provide predictable and attractive returns to our stockholders. Our business plan to achieve this objective is to:
 
  •  own and operate a broadly diversified portfolio of primarily class “B/B+” assets with properties concentrated in the 20 largest markets in the United States (as measured by total apartment value, which is the estimated total market value of apartment properties in a particular market);
 
  •  improve our portfolio by selling assets with lower projected returns and reinvesting those proceeds through the purchase of new assets or additional investment in existing assets in our portfolio, including increased ownership or redevelopment; and
 
  •  provide financial leverage primarily by the use of non-recourse, long-dated, fixed-rate property debt and perpetual preferred equity.
 
As of December 31, 2010, we:
 
  •  owned an equity interest in 219 conventional real estate properties with 68,972 units;
 
  •  owned an equity interest in 228 affordable real estate properties with 26,540 units; and
 
  •  provided services for or managed 27,182 units in 321 properties, primarily pursuant to long-term asset management agreements. In certain cases, we may indirectly own generally less than one percent of the operations of such properties through a syndication or other fund.
 
Of these properties, we consolidated 217 conventional properties with 67,668 units and 182 affordable properties with 22,207 units. These conventional and affordable properties generated 87% and 13%, respectively, of our proportionate property net operating income (as defined in Note 17) during the year ended December 31, 2010. Any reference to the number of properties or units is unaudited.
 
Through our wholly-owned subsidiaries, AIMCO-GP, Inc. and AIMCO-LP Trust, we own a majority of the ownership interests in AIMCO Properties, L.P., which we refer to as the Aimco Operating Partnership. As of December 31, 2010, we held an interest of approximately 93% in the common partnership units and equivalents of the Aimco Operating Partnership. We conduct substantially all of our business and own substantially all of our assets through the Aimco Operating Partnership. Interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership that are held by limited partners other than Aimco are referred to as “OP Units.” OP Units include common partnership units, high performance partnership units and partnership preferred units, which we refer to as common OP Units, High Performance Units and preferred OP Units, respectively. At December 31, 2010, 117,642,872 shares of our Common Stock were outstanding and the Aimco Operating Partnership had 8,470,013 common partnership units and equivalents outstanding for a combined total of 126,112,885 shares of Common Stock, common partnership units and equivalents outstanding.
 
Except as the context otherwise requires, “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” refer to Aimco, the Aimco Operating Partnership and their consolidated entities, collectively.
 
NOTE 2 — Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
 
Principles of Consolidation
 
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Aimco, the Aimco Operating Partnership, and their consolidated entities. We consolidate all variable interest entities for which we are the primary beneficiary. Generally, we consolidate real estate partnerships and other entities that are not variable


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interest entities when we own, directly or indirectly, a majority voting interest in the entity or are otherwise able to control the entity. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
 
Interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership that are held by limited partners other than Aimco are reflected in the accompanying balance sheets as noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership. Interests in partnerships consolidated into the Aimco Operating Partnership that are held by third parties are reflected in the accompanying balance sheets as noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships. The assets of consolidated real estate partnerships owned or controlled by us generally are not available to pay creditors of Aimco or the Aimco Operating Partnership.
 
As used herein, and except where the context otherwise requires, “partnership” refers to a limited partnership or a limited liability company and “partner” refers to a partner in a limited partnership or a member in a limited liability company.
 
Variable Interest Entities
 
We consolidate all variable interest entities for which we are the primary beneficiary. Generally, a variable interest entity, or VIE, is an entity with one or more of the following characteristics: (a) the total equity investment at risk is not sufficient to permit the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support; (b) as a group, the holders of the equity investment at risk lack (i) the ability to make decisions about an entity’s activities through voting or similar rights, (ii) the obligation to absorb the expected losses of the entity, or (iii) the right to receive the expected residual returns of the entity; or (c) the equity investors have voting rights that are not proportional to their economic interests and substantially all of the entity’s activities either involve, or are conducted on behalf of, an investor that has disproportionately few voting rights.
 
Effective January 1, 2010, we adopted the provisions of FASB Accounting Standards Update 2009-17, Improvements to Financial Reporting by Enterprises Involved with Variable Interest Entities, or ASU 2009-17, on a prospective basis. ASU 2009-17, which modified the guidance in FASB ASC Topic 810, introduced a more qualitative approach to evaluating VIEs for consolidation and requires a company to perform an analysis to determine whether its variable interests give it a controlling financial interest in a VIE. This analysis identifies the primary beneficiary of a VIE as the entity that has (a) the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance, and (b) the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits that could potentially be significant to the VIE. In determining whether it has the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly affect the VIE’s performance, ASU 2009-17 requires a company to assess whether it has an implicit financial responsibility to ensure that a VIE operates as designed, requires continuous reassessment of primary beneficiary status rather than periodic, event-driven assessments as previously required, and incorporates expanded disclosure requirements.
 
In determining whether we are the primary beneficiary of a VIE, we consider qualitative and quantitative factors, including, but not limited to: which activities most significantly impact the VIEs economic performance and which party controls such activities; the amount and characteristics of our investment; the obligation or likelihood for us or other investors to provide financial support; and the similarity with and significance to the business activities of us and the other investors. Significant judgments related to these determinations include estimates about the current and future fair values and performance of real estate held by these VIEs and general market conditions.
 
As a result of our adoption of ASU 2009-17, we concluded we are the primary beneficiary of, and therefore consolidated, 49 previously unconsolidated partnerships. Those partnerships own, or control other entities that own, 31 apartment properties. Our direct and indirect interests in the profits and losses of those partnerships range from less than 1% to 35%, and average approximately 7%. We applied the practicability exception for initial measurement of consolidated VIEs to partnerships that own 13 properties and accordingly recognized the consolidated assets, liabilities and noncontrolling interests at fair value effective January 1, 2010 (refer to the Fair Value Measurements section for further information regarding certain of the fair value amounts recognized upon consolidation). We deconsolidated partnerships that own ten apartment properties in which we hold an average interest of approximately 55%. The initial consolidation and deconsolidation of these partnerships resulted


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in increases (decreases), net of intercompany eliminations, in amounts included in our consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2010, as follows (in thousands):
 
                 
    Consolidation     Deconsolidation  
 
Real estate, net
  $ 143,986     $ (86,151 )
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash
    25,056       (7,425 )
Accounts and notes receivable
    (12,249 )     6,002  
Investment in unconsolidated real estate partnerships
    31,579       11,302  
Other assets
    3,870       (1,084 )
                 
Total assets
  $ 192,242     $ (77,356 )
                 
Total indebtedness
  $ 129,164     $ (56,938 )
Accrued and other liabilities
    34,426       (14,921 )
                 
Total liabilities
    163,590       (71,859 )
                 
Cumulative effect of a change in accounting principle:
               
Noncontrolling interests
    59,380       (8,501 )
Aimco
    (30,728 )     3,004  
                 
Total equity
    28,652       (5,497 )
                 
Total liabilities and equity
  $ 192,242     $ (77,356 )
                 
 
In periods prior to 2009, when consolidated real estate partnerships made cash distributions to partners in excess of the carrying amount of the noncontrolling interest, we generally recorded a charge to earnings equal to the amount of such excess distribution, even though there was no economic effect or cost. Also prior to 2009, we allocated the noncontrolling partners’ share of partnership losses to noncontrolling partners to the extent of the carrying amount of the noncontrolling interest. Consolidation of a partnership does not ordinarily result in a change to the net amount of partnership income or loss that is recognized using the equity method. However, prior to 2009, when a partnership had a deficit in equity, accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or GAAP, may have required the controlling partner that consolidates the partnership to recognize any losses that would otherwise be allocated to noncontrolling partners, in addition to the controlling partner’s share of losses. Certain of the partnerships that we consolidated in accordance with ASU 2009-17 had deficits in equity that resulted from losses or deficit distributions during prior periods when we accounted for our investment using the equity method. We would have been required to recognize the noncontrolling partners’ share of those losses had we consolidated those partnerships in those periods prior to 2009. In accordance with our prospective transition method for the adoption of ASU 2009-17 related to our consolidation of previously unconsolidated partnerships, we recorded a $30.7 million charge to our equity, the majority of which was attributed to the cumulative amount of additional losses that we would have recognized had we applied ASU 2009-17 in periods prior to 2009. Substantially all of those losses were attributable to real estate depreciation expense.


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Our consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2010, include the following amounts for the entities and related real estate properties consolidated as of January 1, 2010, in accordance with ASU 2009-17 (in thousands):
 
         
    2010  
 
Rental and other property revenues
  $ 32,216  
Property operating expenses
    (19,192 )
Depreciation and amortization
    (10,624 )
Other expenses
    (2,038 )
         
Operating income
    362  
Interest income
    33  
Interest expense
    (8,370 )
Equity in losses of unconsolidated real estate partnerships
    (17,895 )
Gain on disposition of unconsolidated real estate and other
    7,360  
         
Net loss
    (18,510 )
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships
    19,328  
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership
    (57 )
         
Net income attributable to Aimco
  $ 761  
         
 
Our equity in the results of operations of the partnerships and related properties we deconsolidated in connection with our adoption of ASU 2009-17 is included in equity in earnings or losses of unconsolidated real estate partnerships in our consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2010. The amounts related to these entities are not significant.
 
As of December 31, 2010, we were the primary beneficiary of, and therefore consolidated, approximately 137 VIEs, which owned 96 apartment properties with 14,054 units. Real estate with a carrying value of $867.1 million collateralized $654.3 million of debt of those VIEs. Any significant amounts of assets and liabilities related to our consolidated VIEs are identified parenthetically on our accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. The creditors of the consolidated VIEs do not have recourse to our general credit.
 
As of December 31, 2010, we also held variable interests in 276 VIEs for which we were not the primary beneficiary. Those VIEs consist primarily of partnerships that are engaged, directly or indirectly, in the ownership and management of 329 apartment properties with 20,570 units. We are involved with those VIEs as an equity holder, lender, management agent, or through other contractual relationships. The majority of our investments in unconsolidated VIEs, or approximately $48.9 million at December 31, 2010, are held through consolidated investment partnerships that are VIEs and in which we generally hold a 1% or less general partner or equivalent interest. Accordingly, substantially all of the investment balances related to these unconsolidated VIEs are attributed to the noncontrolling interests in the consolidated investment partnerships that hold the investments in these unconsolidated VIEs. Our maximum risk of loss related to our investment in these VIEs is generally limited to our equity interest in the consolidated investment partnerships, which is insignificant. The remainder of our investment in unconsolidated VIEs, or approximately $5.5 million at December 31, 2010, is held through consolidated investment partnerships that are VIEs and in which we hold substantially all of the economic interests. Our maximum risk of loss related to our investment in these VIEs is limited to our $5.5 million recorded investment in such entities.
 
In addition to our investments in unconsolidated VIEs discussed above, at December 31, 2010, we had in aggregate $101.7 million of receivables from unconsolidated VIEs and we had a contractual obligation to advance funds to certain unconsolidated VIEs totaling $3.8 million. Our maximum risk of loss associated with our lending and management activities related to these unconsolidated VIEs is limited to these amounts. We may be subject to additional losses to the extent of any receivables relating to future provision of services to these entities or financial support that we voluntarily provide.


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Acquisition of Real Estate Assets and Related Depreciation and Amortization
 
We adopted the provisions of FASB Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141(R), Business Combinations — a replacement of FASB Statement No. 141, or SFAS 141(R), which are codified in FASB ASC Topic 805, effective January 1, 2009. These provisions apply to all transactions or events in which an entity obtains control of one or more businesses, including those effected without the transfer of consideration, for example, by contract or through a lapse of minority veto rights. These provisions require the acquiring entity in a business combination to recognize the full fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the transaction (whether a full or partial acquisition); establish the acquisition-date fair value as the measurement objective for all assets acquired and liabilities assumed; and require expensing of most transaction and restructuring costs.
 
We believe most operating real estate assets meet SFAS 141(R)’s revised definition of a business. Accordingly, in connection with our 2009 adoption of SFAS 141(R), we retroactively adjusted our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2008, to expense $3.5 million of transaction costs incurred prior to December 31, 2008. This retroactive adjustment is reflected in investment management expenses in our accompanying consolidated statements of operations and reduced basic and diluted earnings per share amounts by $0.04 for the year ended December 31, 2008.
 
Effective January 1, 2009, we recognize at fair value the acquisition of properties or interests in partnerships that own properties if the transaction results in consolidation and we expense as incurred most related transaction costs. We allocate the cost of acquired properties to tangible assets and identified intangible assets based on their fair values. We determine the fair value of tangible assets, such as land, building, furniture, fixtures and equipment, generally using internal valuation techniques that consider comparable market transactions, discounted cash flow techniques, replacement costs and other available information. We determine the fair value of identified intangible assets (or liabilities), which typically relate to in-place leases, using internal valuation techniques that consider the terms of the in-place leases, current market data for comparable leases, and our experience in leasing similar properties. The intangible assets or liabilities related to in-place leases are comprised of:
 
  1.  The value of the above- and below-market leases in-place. An asset or liability is recognized based on the difference between (a) the contractual amounts to be paid pursuant to the in-place leases and (b) our estimate of fair market lease rates for the corresponding in-place leases, measured over the period, including estimated lease renewals for below-market leases, that the leases are expected to remain in effect.
 
  2.  The estimated unamortized portion of avoided leasing commissions and other costs that ordinarily would be incurred to acquire the in-place leases.
 
  3.  The value associated with vacant units during the absorption period (estimates of lost rental revenue during the expected lease-up periods based on current market demand and stabilized occupancy levels).
 
The values of the above- and below-market leases are amortized to rental revenue over the expected remaining terms of the associated leases. Other intangible assets related to in-place leases are amortized to depreciation and amortization over the expected remaining terms of the associated leases. Amortization is adjusted, as necessary, to reflect any early lease terminations that were not anticipated in determining amortization periods.
 
Depreciation for all tangible real estate assets is calculated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. Acquired buildings and improvements are depreciated over a composite life of 14 to 52 years, based on the age, condition and other physical characteristics of the property. As discussed under Impairment of Long Lived Assets below, we may adjust depreciation of properties that are expected to be disposed of or demolished prior to the end of their useful lives. Furniture, fixtures and equipment associated with acquired properties are depreciated over five years.
 
At December 31, 2010 and 2009, deferred income in our consolidated balance sheets includes below-market lease amounts totaling $27.9 million and $31.8 million, respectively, which are net of accumulated amortization of $24.9 million and $21.0 million, respectively. During the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, we included amortization of below-market leases of $3.9 million, $4.4 million and $4.4 million, respectively, in rental and other property revenues in our consolidated statements of operations. At December 31, 2010, our below-market


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leases had a weighted average amortization period of 7.0 years and estimated aggregate amortization for each of the five succeeding years as follows (in millions):
 
                                         
    2011   2012   2013   2014   2015
 
Estimated amortization
  $ 3.6     $ 3.2     $ 2.8     $ 2.5     $ 2.3  
 
Capital Additions and Related Depreciation
 
We capitalize costs, including certain indirect costs, incurred in connection with our capital additions activities, including redevelopment and construction projects, other tangible property improvements, and replacements of existing property components. Included in these capitalized costs are payroll costs associated with time spent by site employees in connection with the planning, execution and control of all capital additions activities at the property level. We characterize as “indirect costs” an allocation of certain department costs, including payroll, at the area operations and corporate levels that clearly relate to capital additions activities. We capitalize interest, property taxes and insurance during periods in which redevelopment and construction projects are in progress. We charge to expense as incurred costs that do not relate to capital expenditure activities, including ordinary repairs, maintenance, resident turnover costs and general and administrative expenses.
 
We depreciate capitalized costs using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the related component or improvement, which is generally five, 15 or 30 years. All capitalized site payroll and indirect costs are allocated proportionately, based on direct costs, among capital projects and depreciated over the estimated useful lives of such projects.
 
Certain homogeneous items that are purchased in bulk on a recurring basis, such as carpeting and appliances, are depreciated using group methods that reflect the average estimated useful life of the items in each group. Except in the case of property casualties, where the net book value of lost property is written off in the determination of casualty gains or losses, we generally do not recognize any loss in connection with the replacement of an existing property component because normal replacements are considered in determining the estimated useful lives used in connection with our composite and group depreciation methods.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, for continuing and discontinued operations, we capitalized $11.6 million, $9.8 million and $25.7 million of interest costs, respectively, and $25.3 million, $40.0 million and $78.1 million of site payroll and indirect costs, respectively.
 
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
 
Real estate and other long-lived assets to be held and used are stated at cost, less accumulated depreciation and amortization, unless the carrying amount of the asset is not recoverable. If events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of a property may not be recoverable, we make an assessment of its recoverability by comparing the carrying amount to our estimate of the undiscounted future cash flows, excluding interest charges, of the property. If the carrying amount exceeds the aggregate undiscounted future cash flows, we recognize an impairment loss to the extent the carrying amount exceeds the estimated fair value of the property.
 
In connection with the preparation of our 2008 annual financial statements, we assessed the recoverability of our investment in our Lincoln Place property, located in Venice, California. Based upon the declines in land values in Southern California during 2008 and the expected timing of our redevelopment efforts, we determined that the total carrying amount of the property was no longer probable of full recovery and, accordingly, during the three months ended December 31, 2008, recognized an impairment loss of $85.4 million ($55.6 million net of tax).
 
Similarly, we assessed the recoverability of our investment in Pacific Bay Vistas (formerly Treetops), a vacant property located in San Bruno, California, and determined that the carrying amount of the property was no longer probable of full recovery and, accordingly, we recognized an impairment loss of $5.7 million for this property during the three months ended December 31, 2008.
 
In addition to the impairments of Lincoln Place and Pacific Bay Vistas, based on periodic tests of recoverability of long-lived assets, for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, we recorded real estate impairment


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losses of $0.4 million and $2.3 million, respectively, related to properties classified as held for use. For the year ended December 31, 2008, we recorded no similar impairment losses related to properties classified as held for use.
 
We report impairment losses or recoveries related to properties sold or classified as held for sale in discontinued operations.
 
Our tests of recoverability address real estate assets that do not currently meet all conditions to be classified as held for sale, but are expected to be disposed of prior to the end of their estimated useful lives. If an impairment loss is not required to be recorded, the recognition of depreciation is adjusted prospectively, as necessary, to reduce the carrying amount of the real estate to its estimated disposition value over the remaining period that the real estate is expected to be held and used. We also may adjust depreciation prospectively to reduce to zero the carrying amount of buildings that we plan to demolish in connection with a redevelopment project. These depreciation adjustments, after adjustments for noncontrolling interests, decreased net income available to Aimco common stockholders by $0.2 million, $18.3 million and $10.7 million, and resulted in decreases in basic and diluted earnings per share of less than $0.01, $0.16 and $0.12, for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively.
 
Cash Equivalents
 
We classify highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less as cash equivalents.
 
Restricted Cash
 
Restricted cash includes capital replacement reserves, completion repair reserves, bond sinking fund amounts and tax and insurance escrow accounts held by lenders.
 
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
 
Accounts receivable are generally comprised of amounts receivable from residents, amounts receivable from non-affiliated real estate partnerships for which we provide property management and other services and other miscellaneous receivables from non-affiliated entities. We evaluate collectibility of accounts receivable from residents and establish an allowance, after the application of security deposits and other anticipated recoveries, for accounts greater than 30 days past due for current residents and all receivables due from former residents. Accounts receivable from residents are stated net of allowances for doubtful accounts of approximately $2.1 million and $1.4 million as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
 
We evaluate collectibility of accounts receivable from non-affiliated entities and establish an allowance for amounts that are considered to be uncollectible. Accounts receivable relating to non-affiliated entities are stated net of allowances for doubtful accounts of approximately $1.0 million and $0.3 million as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
 
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts from Affiliates
 
Accounts receivable from affiliates are generally comprised of receivables related to property management and other services provided to unconsolidated real estate partnerships in which we have an ownership interest. We evaluate collectibility of accounts receivable balances from affiliates on a periodic basis, and establish an allowance for the amounts deemed to be uncollectible. Accounts receivable from affiliates are stated net of allowances for doubtful accounts of approximately $1.5 million and $1.9 million as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
 
Deferred Costs
 
We defer lender fees and other direct costs incurred in obtaining new financing and amortize the amounts over the terms of the related loan agreements. Amortization of these costs is included in interest expense.
 
We defer leasing commissions and other direct costs incurred in connection with successful leasing efforts and amortize the costs over the terms of the related leases. Amortization of these costs is included in depreciation and amortization.


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Notes Receivable from Unconsolidated Real Estate Partnerships and Non-Affiliates and Related Interest Income and Provision for Losses
 
Notes receivable from unconsolidated real estate partnerships and from non-affiliates represent our two portfolio segments, as defined in FASB Accounting Standards Update 2010-20, Disclosures about the Credit Quality of Financing Receivables and the Allowance for Credit Losses, that we use to evaluate for potential loan loss. Notes receivable from unconsolidated real estate partnerships consist primarily of notes receivable from partnerships in which we are the general partner but do not consolidate the partnership. These loans are typically due on demand, have no stated maturity date and may not require current payments of principal or interest. Notes receivable from non-affiliates have stated maturity dates and may require current payments of principal and interest. Repayment of these notes is subject to a number of variables, including the performance and value of the underlying real estate properties and the claims of unaffiliated mortgage lenders, which are generally senior to our claims. Our notes receivable consist of two classes: loans extended by us that we carry at the face amount plus accrued interest, which we refer to as “par value notes;” and loans extended by predecessors whose positions we generally acquired at a discount, which we refer to as “discounted notes.”
 
We record interest income on par value notes as earned in accordance with the terms of the related loan agreements. We discontinue the accrual of interest on such notes when the notes are impaired, as discussed below, or when there is otherwise significant uncertainty as to the collection of interest. We record income on such nonaccrual loans using the cost recovery method, under which we apply cash receipts first to the recorded amount of the loan; thereafter, any additional receipts are recognized as income.
 
We recognize interest income on discounted notes receivable based upon whether the amount and timing of collections are both probable and reasonably estimable. We consider collections to be probable and reasonably estimable when the borrower has closed or entered into certain pending transactions (which include real estate sales, refinancings, foreclosures and rights offerings) that provide a reliable source of repayment. In such instances, we recognize accretion income, on a prospective basis using the effective interest method over the estimated remaining term of the loans, equal to the difference between the carrying amount of the discounted notes and the estimated collectible value. We record income on all other discounted notes using the cost recovery method.
 
We assess the collectibility of notes receivable on a periodic basis, which assessment consists primarily of an evaluation of cash flow projections of the borrower to determine whether estimated cash flows are sufficient to repay principal and interest in accordance with the contractual terms of the note. We update our cash flow projections of the borrowers annually, and more frequently for certain loans depending on facts and circumstances. We recognize impairments on notes receivable when it is probable that principal and interest will not be received in accordance with the contractual terms of the loan. Factors that affect this assessment include the fair value of the partnership’s real estate, pending transactions to refinance the partnership’s senior obligations or sell the partnership’s real estate, and market conditions (current and forecasted) related to a particular asset. The amount of the impairment to be recognized generally is based on the fair value of the partnership’s real estate that represents the primary source of loan repayment. In certain instances where other sources of cash flow are available to repay the loan, the impairment is measured by discounting the estimated cash flows at the loan’s original effective interest rate. See Note 5 for further discussion of our notes receivable.
 
Investments in Unconsolidated Real Estate Partnerships
 
We own general and limited partner interests in partnerships that either directly, or through interests in other real estate partnerships, own apartment properties. We generally account for investments in real estate partnerships that we do not consolidate under the equity method. Under the equity method, our share of the earnings or losses of the entity for the periods being presented is included in equity in earnings (losses) from unconsolidated real estate partnerships, inclusive of our share of impairments and property disposition gains recognized by and related to such entities. Certain investments in real estate partnerships that were acquired in business combinations were determined to have insignificant value at the acquisition date and are accounted for under the cost method. Any distributions received from such partnerships are recognized as income when received.
 
The excess of the cost of the acquired partnership interests over the historical carrying amount of partners’ equity or deficit is ascribed generally to the fair values of land and buildings owned by the partnerships. We


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amortize the excess cost related to the buildings over the estimated useful lives of the buildings. Such amortization is recorded as a component of equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated real estate partnerships. See Note 4 for further discussion of Investments in Unconsolidated Real Estate Partnerships.
 
Intangible Assets
 
At December 31, 2010 and 2009, other assets included goodwill associated with our reportable segments of $67.1 million and $71.8 million, respectively. We perform an annual impairment test of goodwill that compares the fair value of reporting units with their carrying amounts, including goodwill. We determined that our goodwill was not impaired in 2010, 2009 or 2008.
 
During the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, we allocated $4.7 million and $10.1 million, respectively, of goodwill related to our reportable segments (conventional and affordable real estate operations) to the carrying amounts of the properties sold or classified as held for sale. The amounts of goodwill allocated to these properties were based on the relative fair values of the properties sold or classified as held for sale and the retained portions of the reporting units to which the goodwill as allocated. During 2008, we did not allocate any goodwill to properties sold or classified as held for sale as real estate properties were not considered businesses under then applicable GAAP.
 
Other assets also includes intangible assets for purchased management contracts with finite lives that we amortize on a straight-line basis over terms ranging from five to 20 years and intangible assets for in-place leases as discussed under Acquisition of Real Estate Assets and Related Depreciation and Amortization.
 
Capitalized Software Costs
 
Purchased software and other costs related to software developed for internal use are capitalized during the application development stage and are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the software, generally five years. We write-off the costs of software development projects when it is no longer probable that the software will be completed and placed in service. For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, we capitalized software development costs totaling $8.7 million, $5.6 million and $20.9 million, respectively. At December 31, 2010 and 2009, other assets included $28.1 million and $29.7 million of net capitalized software, respectively. During the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, we recognized amortization of capitalized software of $10.2 million, $11.5 million and $10.0 million, respectively, which is included in depreciation and amortization in our consolidated statements of operations.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2008, we reassessed our approach to communication technology needs at our properties, which resulted in the discontinuation of an infrastructure project and a $5.4 million write-off of related hardware and capitalized internal and consulting costs included in other assets. The write-off, which is net of sales proceeds, is included in other expenses, net. During the year ended December 31, 2008, we additionally recorded a $1.6 million write-off of certain software and hardware assets that are no longer consistent with our information technology strategy. This write-off is included in depreciation and amortization. There were no similar write-offs during the years ended December 31, 2010 or 2009.
 
Noncontrolling Interests
 
Effective January 1, 2009, we adopted the provisions of FASB Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 160, Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Financial Statements — an amendment of ARB No. 51, or SFAS 160, which are codified in FASB ASC Topic 810. These provisions clarified that a noncontrolling interest in a subsidiary is an ownership interest in a consolidated entity, which should be reported as equity in the parent’s consolidated financial statements. These provisions require disclosure, on the face of the consolidated statements of operations, of the amounts of consolidated net income (loss) and other comprehensive income (loss) attributable to controlling and noncontrolling interests, eliminating the past practice of reporting amounts of income attributable to noncontrolling interests as an adjustment in arriving at consolidated net income. These provisions also require us to attribute to noncontrolling interests their share of losses even if such attribution results in a deficit noncontrolling interest balance within our equity accounts, and in some instances, recognize a gain or loss in net income when a subsidiary is deconsolidated.


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In connection with our retrospective application of these provisions, we reclassified into our consolidated equity accounts the historical balances related to noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships and the portion of noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership related to the Aimco Operating Partnership’s common OP Units and High Performance Units. At December 31, 2008, the carrying amount of noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships was $380.7 million and the carrying amount for noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership attributable to common OP Units and High Performance Units was zero, due to cash distributions in excess of the positive balances related to those noncontrolling interests.
 
Noncontrolling Interests in Consolidated Real Estate Partnerships
 
We report the unaffiliated partners’ interests in our consolidated real estate partnerships as noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships. Noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships represent the noncontrolling partners’ share of the underlying net assets of our consolidated real estate partnerships. Prior to 2009, when these consolidated real estate partnerships made cash distributions to partners in excess of the carrying amount of the noncontrolling interest, we generally recorded a charge equal to the amount of such excess distribution, even though there was no economic effect or cost. These charges are reported in the consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2008, within noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships. Also prior to 2009, we allocated the noncontrolling partners’ share of partnership losses to noncontrolling partners to the extent of the carrying amount of the noncontrolling interest. We generally recorded a charge when the noncontrolling partners’ share of partnership losses exceeds the carrying amount of the noncontrolling interest, even though there is no economic effect or cost. These charges are reported in the consolidated statements of operations within noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships. We did not record charges for distributions or losses in certain limited instances where the noncontrolling partner had a legal obligation and financial capacity to contribute additional capital to the partnership. For the year ended December 31, 2008, we recorded charges for partnership losses resulting from depreciation of approximately $9.0 million that were not allocated to noncontrolling partners because the losses exceeded the carrying amount of the noncontrolling interest.
 
Noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships consist primarily of equity interests held by limited partners in consolidated real estate partnerships that have finite lives. The terms of the related partnership agreements generally require the partnership to be liquidated following the sale of the partnership’s real estate. As the general partner in these partnerships, we ordinarily control the execution of real estate sales and other events that could lead to the liquidation, redemption or other settlement of noncontrolling interests. The aggregate carrying amount of noncontrolling interests in consolidated real estate partnerships is approximately $291.5 million at December 31, 2010. The aggregate fair value of these interests varies based on the fair value of the real estate owned by the partnerships. Based on the number of classes of finite-life noncontrolling interests, the number of properties in which there is direct or indirect noncontrolling ownership, complexities in determining the allocation of liquidation proceeds among partners and other factors, we believe it is impracticable to determine the total required payments to the noncontrolling interests in an assumed liquidation at December 31, 2010. As a result of real estate depreciation that is recognized in our financial statements and appreciation in the fair value of real estate that is not recognized in our financial statements, we believe that the aggregate fair value of our noncontrolling interests exceeds their aggregate carrying amount. As a result of our ability to control real estate sales and other events that require payment of noncontrolling interests and our expectation that proceeds from real estate sales will be sufficient to liquidate related noncontrolling interests, we anticipate that the eventual liquidation of these noncontrolling interests will not have an adverse impact on our financial condition.
 
Changes in our ownership interest in consolidated real estate partnerships generally consist of our purchase of an additional interest in or the sale of our entire interest in a consolidated real estate partnership. The effect on our equity of our purchase of additional interests in consolidated real estate partnerships during the year ended December 31, 2010 is shown in the consolidated statement of equity and further discussed in Note 3. Our purchase of additional interests in consolidated real estate partnerships had no significant effect on our equity during the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2008. The effect on our equity of sales of our entire interest in consolidated real estate partnerships is reflected in our consolidated financial statements as sales of real estate and accordingly the


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effect on our equity is reflected as gains on disposition of real estate, less the amounts of such gains attributable to noncontrolling interests, within consolidated net (loss) income attributable to Aimco common stockholders.
 
Noncontrolling Interests in Aimco Operating Partnership
 
Noncontrolling interests in Aimco Operating Partnership consist of common OP Units, High Performance Units and preferred OP Units held by limited partners in the Aimco Operating Partnership other than Aimco. We allocate the Aimco Operating Partnership’s income or loss to the holders of common OP Units and High Performance Units based on the weighted average number of common partnership units (including those held by us) and High Performance Units outstanding during the period. During 2010, 2009 and 2008, the holders of common OP Units and equivalents had a weighted average ownership interest in the Aimco Operating Partnership of was approximately 7%, 7% and 10%, respectively. Holders of the preferred OP Units participate in the Aimco Operating Partnership’s income or loss only to the extent of their preferred distributions. See Note 10 for further information regarding noncontrolling interests in the Aimco Operating Partnership.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
Our properties have operating leases with apartment residents with terms averaging 12 months. We recognize rental revenue related to these leases, net of any concessions, on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. We recognize revenues from property management, asset management, syndication and other services when the related fees are earned and are realized or realizable.
 
Advertising Costs
 
We generally expense all advertising costs as incurred to property operating expense. For the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008, for both continuing and discontinued operations, total advertising expense was $14.2 million, $21.7 million and $31.8 million, respectively.
 
Insurance
 
We believe that our insurance coverages insure our properties adequately against the risk of loss attributable to fire, earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood, and other perils. In addition, we have insurance coverage for substantial portions of our property, workers’ compensation, health, and general liability exposures. Losses are accrued based upon our estimates of the aggregate liability for uninsured losses incurred using certain actuarial assumptions followed in the insurance industry and based on our experience.
 
Stock-Based Compensation
 
We recognize all stock-based employee compensation, including grants of employee stock options, in the consolidated financial statements based on the grant date fair value and recognize compensation cost, which is net of estimates for expected forfeitures, ratably over the awards’ requisite service period. See Note 12 for further discussion of our stock-based compensation.
 
Tax Credit Arrangements
 
We sponsor certain partnerships that own and operate apartment properties that qualify for tax credits under Section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, which we refer to as the Code, and for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, or HUD, subsidized rents under HUD’s Section 8 program. These partnerships acquire, develop and operate qualifying affordable housing properties and are structured to provide for the pass-through of tax credits and deductions to their partners. The tax credits are generally realized ratably over the first ten years of the tax credit arrangement and are subject to the partnership’s compliance with applicable laws and regulations for a period of 15 years. Typically, we are the general partner with a legal ownership interest of one percent or less. We market limited partner interests of at least 99 percent to unaffiliated institutional investors (which we refer to as tax credit investors or investors) and receive a syndication fee from each investor upon such investor’s admission to the partnership. At inception, each investor agrees to fund capital contributions to the partnerships. We agree to perform various services for the partnerships in exchange for fees over the expected


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duration of the tax credit service period. The related partnership agreements generally require adjustment of each tax credit investor’s required capital contributions if actual tax benefits to such investor differ from projected amounts.
 
We have determined that the partnerships in these arrangements are variable interest entities and, where we are general partner, we are generally the primary beneficiary that is required to consolidate the partnerships. When the contractual arrangements obligate us to deliver tax benefits to the investors, and entitle us through fee arrangements to receive substantially all available cash flow from the partnerships, we account for these partnerships as wholly owned subsidiaries. Capital contributions received by the partnerships from tax credit investors represent, in substance, consideration that we receive in exchange for our obligation to deliver tax credits and other tax benefits to the investors, and the receipts are recognized as revenue in our consolidated financial statements when our obligation to the investors is relieved upon delivery of the expected tax benefits.
 
In summary, our accounting treatment recognizes the income or loss generated by the underlying real estate based on our economic interest in the partnerships. Proceeds received in exchange for the transfer of the tax credits are recognized as revenue proportionately as the tax benefits are delivered to the tax credit investors and our obligation is relieved. Syndication fees and related costs are recognized in income upon completion of the syndication effort. We recognize syndication fees in amounts determined based on a market rate analysis of fees for comparable services, which generally fell within a range of 10% to 15% of investor contributions during the periods presented. Other direct and incremental costs incurred in structuring these arrangements are deferred and amortized over the expected duration of the arrangement in proportion to the recognition of related income. Investor contributions in excess of recognized revenue are reported as deferred income in our consolidated balance sheets.
 
During the year ended December 31, 2010, we recognized a net $1.0 million reduction of syndication fees due to our determination that certain syndication fees receivable were uncollectible. We recognized no syndication fee income during the year ended December 31, 2009. During the year ended December 31, 2008, we recognized syndication fee income of $3.4 million. During the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009 and 2008 we recognized revenue associated with the delivery of tax benefits of $28.9 million, $36.6 million and $29.4 million, respectively. At December 31, 2010 and 2009, $114.7 million and $148.1 million, respectively, of investor contributions in excess of the recognized revenue were included in deferred income in our consolidated balance sheets.
 
Discontinued Operations
 
We classify certain properties and related assets and liabilities as held for sale when they meet certain criteria. The operating results of such properties as well as those properties sold during the periods presented are included in discontinued operations in both current periods and all comparable periods presented. Depreciation is not recorded on properties once they have been classified as held for sale; however, depreciation expense recorded prior to classification as held for sale is included in discontinued operations. The net gain on sale and any impairment losses are presented in discontinued operations when recognized. See Note 13 for additional information regarding discontinued operations.
 
Derivative Financial Instruments
 
We primarily use long-term, fixed-rate and self-amortizing non-recourse debt to avoid, among other things, risk related to fluctuating interest rates. For our variable rate debt, we are sometimes required by our lenders to limit our exposure to interest rate fluctuations by entering into interest rate swap or cap agreements. The interest rate swap agreements moderate our exposure to interest rate risk by effectively converting the interest on variable rate debt to a fixed rate. The interest rate cap agreements effectively limit our exposure to interest rate risk by providing a ceiling on the underlying variable interest rate. The fair values of the interest rate swaps are reflected as assets or liabilities in the balance sheet, and periodic changes in fair value are included in interest expense or equity, as appropriate. The interest rate caps are not material to our financial position or results of operations.
 
As of December 31, 2010 and 2009, we had interest rate swaps with aggregate notional amounts of $52.3 million, and recorded fair values of $2.7 million and $1.6 million, respectively, reflected in accrued liabilities and other in our consolidated balance sheets. At December 31, 2010, these interest rate swaps had a weighted average term of 10.1 years. We have designated these interest rate swaps as cash flow hedges and


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recognize any changes in their fair value as an adjustment of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) within equity to the extent of their effectiveness. Changes in the fair value of these instruments and the related amounts of such changes that were reflected as an adjustment of accumulated other comprehensive loss within equity and as an adjustment of earnings (ineffectiveness) are discussed in the foregoing Fair Value Measurements section.
 
If the forward rates at December 31, 2010 remain constant, we estimate that during the next twelve months, we would reclassify into earnings approximately $1.6 million of the unrealized losses in accumulated other comprehensive loss. If market interest rates increase above the 3.43% weighted average fixed rate under these interest rate swaps we will benefit from net cash payments due to us from our counterparty to the interest rate swaps.
 
We have entered into total rate of return swaps on various fixed-rate secured tax-exempt bonds payable and fixed-rate notes payable to convert these borrowings from a fixed rate to a variable rate and provide an efficient financing product to lower our cost of borrowing. In exchange for our receipt of a fixed rate generally equal to the underlying borrowing’s interest rate, the total rate of return swaps require that we pay a variable rate, equivalent to the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association Municipal Swap Index, or SIFMA, rate for tax-exempt bonds payable and the 30-day LIBOR rate for notes payable, plus a risk spread. These swaps generally have a second or third lien on the property collateralized by the related borrowings and the obligations under certain of these swaps are cross-collateralized with certain of the other swaps with a particular counterparty. The underlying borrowings are generally callable at our option, with no prepayment penalty, with 30 days advance notice, and the swaps generally have a term of less than five years. The total rate of return swaps have a contractually defined termination value generally equal to the difference between the fair value and the counterparty’s purchased value of the underlying borrowings, which may require payment by us or to us for such difference. Accordingly, we believe fluctuations in the fair value of the borrowings from the inception of the hedging relationship generally will be offset by a corresponding fluctuation in the fair value of the total rate of return swaps.
 
We designate total rate of return swaps as hedges of the risk of overall changes in the fair value of the underlying borrowings. At each reporting period, we estimate the fair value of these borrowings and the total rate of return swaps and recognize any changes therein as an adjustment of interest expense. We evaluate the effectiveness of these fair value hedges at the end of each reporting period and recognize an adjustment of interest expense as a result of any ineffectiveness.
 
Borrowings payable subject to total rate of return swaps with aggregate outstanding principal balances of $276.9 million and $352.7 million at December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively, are reflected as variable rate borrowings in Note 6. Due to changes in the estimated fair values of these debt instruments and the corresponding total rate of return swaps, we increased the carrying amount of property loans payable by $4.8 million and $5.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2010 and 2009, respectively, and reduced the carrying amount of property loans payable by $20.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, with offsetting adjustments to the swap values in accrued liabilities, resulting in no net effect on net income. Refer to the foregoing Fair Value Measurements section for further discussion of fair value measurements related to these arrangements. During 2010, 2009 and 2008, we determined these hedges were fully effective and accordingly we made no adjustments to interest expense for ineffectiveness.


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At December 31, 2010, the weighted average fixed receive rate under the total return swaps was 6.8% and the weighted average variable pay rate was 1.6%, based on the applicable SIFMA and 30-day LIBOR rates effective as of that date. Further information related to our total return swaps as of December 31, 2010 is as follows (dollars in millions):
 
                                         
                            Weighted Average Swap
 
            Weighted
          Year of
  Variable Pay Rate at
 
Debt
    Year of Debt
    Average Debt
    Swap Notional
    Swap
  December 31,
 
Principal     Maturity     Interest Rate     Amount     Maturity   2010  
 
$ 29.2       2012       7.5 %   $ 29.2     2012     1.6 %
  24.0       2015       6.9 %     24.0     2012     1.1 %
  93.0       2031       7.4 %     93.0     2012     1.1 %
  106.1       2036       6.2 %     106.5     2012     2.2 %
  12.1       2038       5.5 %     12.1     2012     1.0 %
  12.5       2048       6.5 %     12.5     2012     1.0 %
                                         
$ 276.9                     $ 277.3              
                                         
 
Fair Value Measurements
 
Beginning in 2008, we applied the FASB’s revised accounting provisions related to fair value measurements, which are codified in FASB ASC Topic 820. These revised provisions define fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, establish a hierarchy that prioritizes the information used in developing fair value estimates and require disclosure of fair value measurements by level within the fair value hierarchy. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to quoted prices in active markets (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable data (Level 3 measurements), such as the reporting entity’s own data. We adopted the revised fair value measurement provisions that apply to recurring and nonrecurring fair value measurements of financial assets and liabilities effective January 1, 2008, and the provisions that apply to the remaining fair value measurements effective January 1, 2009, and at those times determined no transition adjustments were required.
 
The valuation hierarchy is based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date and includes three levels defined as follows:
 
     
Level 1 —
  Unadjusted quoted prices for identical and unrestricted assets or liabilities in active markets
Level 2 —
  Quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, and inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument
Level 3 —
  Unobservable inputs that are significant to the fair value measurement
 
A financial instrument’s categorization within the valuation hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
 
Following are descriptions of the valuation methodologies used for our significant assets or liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring or nonrecurring basis. Although some of the valuation methodologies use observable market inputs in limited instances, the majority of inputs we use are unobservable and are therefore classified within Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy.
 
Real Estate
 
From time to time, we may be required to recognize an impairment loss to the extent the carrying amount of a property exceeds the estimated fair value, for properties classified as held for use, or the estimated fair value, less estimated selling costs, for properties classified as held for sale. Additionally, we are generally required to initially measure real estate recognized in connection with our consolidation of real estate partnerships at fair value.


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We estimate the fair value of real estate using income and market valuation techniques using information such as broker estimates, purchase prices for recent transactions on comparable assets and net operating income capitalization analyses using observable and unobservable inputs such as capitalization rates, asset quality grading, geographic location analysis, and local supply and demand observations. For certain properties classified as held for sale, we may also recognize the impairment loss based on the contract sale price, which we believe is representative of fair value, less estimated selling costs.
 
Notes Receivable
 
We assess the collectibility of notes receivable on a periodic basis, which assessment consists primarily of an evaluation of cash flow projections of the borrower to determine whether estimated cash flows are sufficient to repay principal and interest in accordance with the contractual terms of the note. We recognize impairments on notes receivable when it is probable that principal and interest will not be received in accordance with the contractual terms of the loan. The amount of the impairment to be recognized generally is based on the fair value of the real estate, which represents the primary source of loan repayment. The fair value of real estate is estimated through income and market valuation approaches using information such as broker estimates, purchase prices for recent transactions on comparable assets and net operating income capitalization analyses using observable and unobservable inputs such as capitalization rates, asset quality grading, geographic location analysis, and local supply and demand observations.
 
Interest Rate Swaps
 
We recognized interest rate swaps at their estimated fair value. We estimate the fair value of interest rate swaps using an income approach with primarily observable inputs, including information regarding the hedged variable cash flows and forward yield curves relating to the variable interest rates on which the hedged cash flows are based.
 
Total Rate of Return Swaps
 
Our total rate of return swaps have contractually-defined termination values generally equal to the difference between the fair value and the counterparty’s purchased value of the underlying borrowings. Upon termination, we are required to pay the counterparty the difference if the fair value is less than the purchased value, and the counterparty is required to pay us the difference if the fair value is greater than the purchased value. The underlying borrowings are generally callable, at our option, at face value prior to maturity and with no prepayment penalty. Due to our control of the call features in the underlying borrowings, we believe the inherent value of any differential between the fixed and variable cash payments due under the swaps would be significantly discounted by a market participant willing to purchase or assume any rights and obligations under these contracts.
 
The swaps are generally cross-collateralized with other swap contracts with the same counterparty and do not allow transfer or assignment, thus there is no alternate or secondary market for these instruments. Accordingly, our assumptions about the fair value that a willing market participant would assign in valuing these instruments are based on a hypothetical market in which the highest and best use of these contracts is in-use in combination with the related borrowings, similar to how we use the contracts. Based on these assumptions, we believe the termination value, or exit value, of the swaps approximates the fair value that w