As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 27, 2005
Registration No. -
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Under The Securities Act of 1933
(Including registration of shares for resale by means of a Form S-3 Prospectus)
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State of Incorporation)||
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
|(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)|
1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
Mountain View, CA
|(Address of principal executive offices)||(Zip code)|
1998 Stock Plan
2003 Stock Plan
2003 Stock Plan (No. 2)
2003 Stock Plan (No. 3)
(Full titles of the plans)
Chief Executive Officer
1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
Mountain View, CA 94043
(Name and address of agent for service)
(Telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Christian E. Montegut, Esq.
Ricardo E. Velez, Esq.
Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati
650 Page Mill Road
Palo Alto, CA 94304
Calculation of Registration Fee
Title of Securities to
Class A Common Stock, $0.001 par value(1)
|(1)||Includes Class A common stock issued or issuable pursuant to options granted under Googles 2003 Stock Plan and 2003 Stock Plan (No. 3) and Class A common stock issuable on conversion of Class B common stock issued or issuable pursuant to options granted under Googles 1998 Stock Plan and 2003 Stock Plan (No. 2).|
|(2)||Estimated solely for purposes of calculating the registration fee in accordance with Rules 457(c) and (h) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, on the basis of $198.21, the average of the high and low prices of the Registrants Class A common stock on April 20, 2005, as reported on The Nasdaq National Market.|
Class A Common Stock
This Prospectus relates to 50,022 shares of the Class A common stock (the Shares) of Google Inc., which may be offered from time to time by certain stockholders of Google (the Selling Stockholders) for their own accounts. We will receive no part of the proceeds from sales made hereunder. The Shares were acquired by the Selling Stockholders pursuant to Googles employee benefit plans. The Shares may be offered by the Selling Stockholders from time to time in one or more transactions in the over-the-counter market at prices prevailing therein, in negotiated transactions at such prices as may be agreed upon, or in a combination of such methods of sale. See Plan of Distribution. The price at which any of the Shares may be sold, and the commissions, if any, paid in connection with any such sale, are unknown and may vary from transaction to transaction. The Selling Stockholders will bear all sales commissions and similar expenses. Any other expenses incurred by us in connection with the registration and offering that are not borne by the Selling Stockholders will be borne by Google. None of the Shares have been registered prior to the filing of the Registration Statement on Form S-8/S-3 (herein, together with all amendments and exhibits, referred to as the Registration Statement) of which this Prospectus is a part.
Googles Class A common stock has been quoted on The Nasdaq National Market under the symbol GOOG since August 19, 2004. Prior to that time, there was no public market for our stock. On April 26, 2005, the last sale price for Googles Class A common stock as reported on The Nasdaq National Market was $218.75 per share.
This offering involves material risks. See Risk Factors on page 2 for a discussion of factors that should be considered by prospective investors of the shares offered by this Prospectus.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (the Commission) may take the view that, under certain circumstances, the Selling Stockholders and any broker-dealers or agents that participate with the Selling Stockholders in the distribution of the Shares may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act). Commissions, discounts or concessions received by any such broker-dealer or agent may be deemed to be underwriting commissions under the Securities Act. See Plan of Distribution.
THESE SECURITIES HAVE NOT BEEN APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED BY THE SECURITIES
AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION OR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION NOR
HAS THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION OR ANY STATE
SECURITIES COMMISSION PASSED UPON THE ACCURACY OR
ADEQUACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION
TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.
The date of this Prospectus is April 27, 2005
Google is a global technology leader focused on improving the ways people connect with information. Our innovations in web search and advertising have made our web site a top Internet destination and our brand one of the most recognized in the world. We maintain the worlds largest online index of web sites and other content, and we make this information freely available to anyone with an Internet connection. Our automated search technology helps people obtain nearly instant access to relevant information from our vast online index.
We generate revenue by delivering relevant, cost-effective online advertising. Businesses use our AdWords program to promote their products and services with targeted advertising. In addition, the thousands of third-party web sites that comprise our Google Network use our Google AdSense program to deliver relevant ads that generate revenue and enhance the user experience.
Googles principal executive office is located at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, California 94043, and its telephone number at this location is (650) 623-4000.
This Prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference contain forward-looking statements that are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about Googles industry, managements beliefs, and assumptions made by management. Words such as anticipates, expects, intends, plans, believes, seeks, estimates, variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict; therefore, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or forecasted in any such forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include those set forth herein under Risk Factors, as well as those noted in the documents incorporated herein by reference. Google undertakes no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
In this prospectus, the Company, Google, we, us, and our refer to Google Inc.
* * * * *
The Shares offered hereby are speculative in nature and involve a high degree of risk. The following risk factors should be considered carefully, in addition to the other information contained in the documents incorporated by reference herein, before purchasing the Class A common stock offered hereby:
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
We face significant competition from Microsoft and Yahoo.
We face formidable competition in every aspect of our business, and particularly from other companies that seek to connect people with information on the web and provide them with relevant advertising. Currently, we consider our primary competitors to be Microsoft Corporation and Yahoo! Inc. Microsoft recently introduced a new search engine and has announced plans to develop features that make web search a more integrated part of its Windows operating system. We expect that Microsoft will increasingly use its financial and engineering resources to compete with us. Both Microsoft and Yahoo have more employees than we do (in Microsofts case, currently nearly 20 times as many). Microsoft also has significantly more cash resources than we do. Both of these companies also have longer operating histories and more established relationships with customers. They can use their experience and resources against us in a variety of competitive ways, including by making acquisitions, investing more aggressively in research and development and competing more aggressively for advertisers and web sites. Microsoft and Yahoo also may have a greater ability to attract and retain users than we do because they operate Internet portals with a broad range of content products and services. If Microsoft or Yahoo are successful in providing similar or better web search results compared to ours or leverage their platforms to make their web search services easier to access than ours, we could experience a significant decline in user traffic. Any such decline in traffic could negatively affect our revenues.
We face competition from other Internet companies, including web search providers, Internet advertising companies and destination web sites that may also bundle their services with Internet access.
In addition to Microsoft and Yahoo, we face competition from other web search providers, including companies that are not yet known to us. We compete with Internet advertising companies, particularly in the areas of pay-for-performance and keyword-targeted Internet advertising. Also, we may compete with companies that sell products and services online because these companies, like us, are trying to attract users to their web sites to search for information about products and services.
We also compete with destination web sites that seek to increase their search-related traffic. These destination web sites may include those operated by Internet access providers, such as cable and DSL service providers. Because our users need to access our services through Internet access providers, they have direct relationships with these providers. If an access provider or a computer or computing device manufacturer offers online services that compete with ours, the user may find it more convenient to use the services of the access provider or manufacturer. In addition, the access provider or manufacturer may make it hard to access our services by not listing them in the access providers or manufacturers own menu of offerings. Also, because the access provider gathers information from the user in connection with the establishment of a billing relationship, the access provider may be more effective than we are in tailoring services and advertisements to the specific tastes of the user.
There has been a trend toward industry consolidation among our competitors, and so smaller competitors today may become larger competitors in the future. If our competitors are more successful than we are at generating traffic, our revenues may decline.
We face competition from traditional media companies, and we may not be included in the advertising budgets of large advertisers, which could harm our operating results.
In addition to Internet companies, we face competition from companies that offer traditional media advertising opportunities. Most large advertisers have set advertising budgets, a very small portion of which is allocated to Internet advertising. We expect that large advertisers will continue to focus most of their advertising efforts on traditional media. If we fail to convince these companies to spend a portion of their advertising budgets with us, or if our existing advertisers reduce the amount they spend on our programs, our operating results would be harmed.
We expect our growth rates to decline and anticipate downward pressure on our operating margin in the future.
We expect that in the future our revenue growth rate will decline over time and anticipate that there will be downward pressure on our operating margin. We believe our revenue growth rate will generally decline as a result of increasing competition and the inevitable decline in growth rates as our revenues increase to higher levels. We believe our operating margin will experience downward pressure as a result of increasing competition and increased expenditures for many aspects of our business as a percentage of our revenues. Our operating margin will also experience downward pressure to the extent the proportion of our revenues generated from our Google Network members increases. The margin on revenue we generate from our Google Network members is generally significantly less than the margin on revenue we generate from advertising on our web sites. Additionally, the margin we earn on revenue generated from our Google Network could decrease in the future if our Google Network members demand a greater portion of the advertising fees, which could be the result of increased competition for these members.
Our operating results may fluctuate, which makes our results difficult to predict and could cause our results to fall short of expectations.
Our operating results may fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control. For these reasons, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful, and you should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance. Our quarterly and annual expenses as a percentage of our revenues may be significantly different from our historical or projected rates. Our operating results in future quarters may fall below expectations. Any of these events could cause our stock price to fall. Each of the risk factors listed in this Factors That Could Affect Future Results section, and the following factors, may affect our operating results:
|||Our ability to continue to attract users to our web sites.|
|||The monetization of (or generation of revenue from) traffic on our web sites and our Google Network members web sites.|
|||Our ability to attract advertisers to our AdWords program.|
|||Our ability to attract web sites to our AdSense program.|
|||The mix in our revenues between those generated on our web sites and those generated through our Google Network.|
|||The amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the maintenance and expansion of our businesses, operations and infrastructure.|
|||Our focus on long term goals over short term results.|
|||The results of our investments in risky projects.|
|||Payments made in connection with the resolution of litigation matters.|
|||General economic conditions and those economic conditions specific to the Internet and Internet advertising.|
|||Our ability to keep our web sites operational at a reasonable cost and without service interruptions.|
|||Our ability to forecast revenue from agreements under which we guarantee minimum payments.|
|||Geopolitical events such as war, threat of war or terrorist actions.|
Because our business is changing and evolving, our historical operating results may not be useful to you in predicting our future operating results. In addition, advertising spending has historically been cyclical in nature, reflecting overall economic conditions as well as budgeting and buying patterns. For example, in 1999, advertisers spent heavily on Internet advertising. This was followed by a lengthy downturn in ad spending on the web. Also, user traffic tends to be seasonal. Our rapid growth has masked the cyclicality and seasonality of our business. As our growth slows, we expect that the cyclicality and seasonality in our business may become more pronounced and may in the future cause our operating results to fluctuate.
If we do not continue to innovate and provide products and services that are useful to users, we may not remain competitive, and our revenues and operating results could suffer.
Our success depends on providing products and services that people use for a high quality Internet experience. Our competitors are constantly developing innovations in web search, online advertising and providing information to people. As a result, we must continue to invest significant resources in research and development in order to enhance our web search technology and our existing products and services and introduce new high-quality products and services that people can easily and effectively use. If we are unable to ensure that our users and customers have a high quality experience with our products and services, then these customers may become dissatisfied and move to competitors products. In addition, if we are unable to predict user preferences or industry changes, or if we are unable to modify our products and services on a timely basis, we may lose users, advertisers and Google Network members. Our operating results would also suffer if our innovations are not responsive to the needs of our users, advertisers and Google Network members, are not appropriately timed with market opportunity or are not effectively brought to market. As search technology continues to develop, our competitors may be able to offer search results that are, or that are perceived to be, substantially similar or better than those generated by our search services. This may force us to compete on bases in addition to quality of search results and to expend significant resources in order to remain competitive.
We generate our revenue almost entirely from advertising, and the reduction in spending by or loss of advertisers could seriously harm our business.
We generated approximately 97% of our revenues in 2003 and 99% of our revenues in 2004 from our advertisers. Our advertisers can generally terminate their contracts with us at any time. Advertisers will not continue to do business with us if their investment in advertising with us does not generate sales leads, and ultimately customers, or if we do not deliver their advertisements in an appropriate and effective manner. If we are unable to remain competitive and provide value to our advertisers, they may stop placing ads with us, which would negatively affect our revenues and business.
We rely on our Google Network members for a significant portion of our revenues, and otherwise benefit from our association with them. The loss of these members could prevent us from receiving the benefits we receive from our association with these Google Network members, which could adversely affect our business.
We provide advertising, web search and other services to members of our Google Network. The revenues generated from the fees advertisers pay us when users click on ads that we have delivered to our Google Network members web sites represented approximately 43% of our revenues in 2003 and approximately 49% of our revenues in 2004. We consider this network to be critical to the future growth of our revenues. However, some of the participants in this network may compete with us in one or more areas. Therefore, they may decide in the future to terminate their agreements with us. If our Google Network members decide to use a competitors or their own web search or advertising services, our revenues would decline.
Our agreements with a few of the largest Google Network members account for a significant portion of revenues derived from our AdSense program. In addition, advertising and other fees generated from one Google Network member, America Online, Inc., primarily through our AdSense program accounted for approximately 15%,
16% and 12% of our revenues in 2002, 2003 and in 2004. Also, certain of our key network members operate high-profile web sites, and we derive tangible and intangible benefits from this affiliation. If one or more of these key relationships is terminated or not renewed, and is not replaced with a comparable relationship, our business would be adversely affected.
Our business and operations are experiencing rapid growth. If we fail to effectively manage our growth, our business and operating results could be harmed and we may have to incur significant expenditures to address the additional operational and control requirements of this growth.
We have experienced, and continue to experience, rapid growth in our headcount and operations, which has placed, and will continue to place, significant demands on our management, operational and financial infrastructure. If we do not effectively manage our growth, the quality of our products and services could suffer, which could negatively affect our brand and operating results. To effectively manage this growth, we will need to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and our reporting systems and procedures. These systems enhancements and improvements will require significant capital expenditures and allocation of valuable management resources. If the improvements are not implemented successfully, our ability to manage our growth will be impaired and we may have to make significant additional expenditures to address these issues, which could harm our financial position. The required improvements include:
|||Enhancing our information and communication systems to ensure that our offices around the world are well coordinated and that we can effectively communicate with our growing base of users, advertisers and Google Network members.|
|||Enhancing systems of internal controls to ensure timely and accurate reporting of all of our operations.|
|||Ensuring enhancements to our systems of internal controls are scalable to our anticipated growth in headcount and operations.|
|||Standardizing systems of internal controls and ensuring they are consistently applied at each of our operations around the world.|
|||Documenting all of our information technology systems and our business processes for our ad, billing and other systems.|
|||Improving our information technology infrastructure to maintain the effectiveness of our search and ad systems.|
We are required to evaluate our internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002, and any adverse results from such evaluation could result in a loss of investor confidence in our financial reports and have an adverse effect on our stock price.
Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we will be required beginning with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2005, to furnish a report by our management on our internal control over financial reporting. Such a report will contain, among other matters, an assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of the end of our fiscal year, including a statement as to whether or not our internal control over financial reporting is effective. This assessment must include disclosure of any material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting identified by management. Such report must also contain a statement that our auditors have issued an attestation report on managements assessment of such internal controls.
The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) provides a framework for companies to assess and improve their internal control systems. The Public Company Accounting Oversight Boards Auditing Standard No. 2 (Standard No. 2) provides the professional standards and related performance guidance for auditors to attest to, and report on, managements assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting under Section 404. Managements assessment of internal controls over financial reporting requires
management to make subjective judgments and, particularly because Standard No. 2 is newly effective, some of the judgments will be in areas that may be open to interpretation and therefore the report may be uniquely difficult to prepare, and our auditors may not agree with managements assessments. We are still performing the system and process documentation and evaluation needed to comply with Section 404, which is both costly and challenging.
During this process, if our management identifies one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to assert such internal control is effective. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as of December 31, 2005 (or if our auditors are unable to attest that our managements report is fairly stated or they are unable to express an opinion on the effectiveness of our internal controls), we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which would have an adverse effect on our stock price.
We have in the past discovered, and may in the future discover, areas of our internal controls that need improvement. For example, during our 2002 audit, our external auditors brought to our attention a need to increase restrictions on employee access to our advertising system and automate more of our financial processes. The auditors identified these issues together as a reportable condition, which means that these were matters that in the auditors judgment could adversely affect our ability to record, process, summarize and report financial data consistent with the assertions of management in the financial statements. In 2003, we devoted significant resources to remediate and improve our internal controls. Although we believe that these efforts have strengthened our internal controls and addressed the concerns that gave rise to the reportable condition in 2002, we are continuing to work to improve our internal controls. Areas of improvement include streamlining and standardizing our domestic and international billing and other processes, further limiting internal access to certain data systems and continuing to improve coordination and communication across business functions.
We cannot be certain as to the timing of completion of our evaluation, testing and any required remediation due in large part to the fact that there is very little precedent available by which to measure compliance with the new Auditing Standard No. 2. If we are not able to complete our assessment under Section 404 in a timely manner, we and our auditors would be unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as of December 31, 2005.
We intend to migrate critical financial functions to a third-party provider. If this potential transition is not successful, our business and operations could be disrupted and our operating results would be harmed.
We have entered into an arrangement to transfer our worldwide billing, collection and credit evaluation functions to a third-party service provider, Bertelsmann AG, and are currently in the process of implementing this arrangement; however, we cannot be sure that the arrangement will be completed and implemented. The third-party provider will also track, on an automated basis, a majority of our growing number of AdSense revenue share agreements. These functions are critical to our operations and involve sensitive interactions between us and our advertisers and members of our Google Network. If we do not successfully implement this project, our business, reputation and operating results could be harmed. We have no experience managing and implementing this type of large-scale, cross-functional, international infrastructure project. We also may not be able to integrate our systems and processes with those of the third-party service provider on a timely basis, or at all. Even if this integration is completed on time, the service provider may not perform to agreed upon service levels. Failure of the service provider to perform satisfactorily could result in customer dissatisfaction, disrupt our operations and adversely affect operating results. We will have significantly less control over the systems and processes than if we maintained and operated them ourselves, which increases our risk. If we need to find an alternative source for performing these functions, we may have to expend significant resources in doing so, and we cannot guarantee this would be accomplished in a timely manner or without significant additional disruption to our business.
Our business depends on a strong brand, and if we are not able to maintain and enhance our brand, our ability to expand our base of users, advertisers and Google Network members will be impaired and our business and operating results will be harmed.
We believe that the brand identity that we have developed has significantly contributed to the success of our business. We also believe that maintaining and enhancing the Google brand is critical to expanding our base of users, advertisers and Google Network members. Maintaining and enhancing our brand may require us to make substantial investments and these investments may not be successful. If we fail to promote and maintain the Google brand, or if we incur excessive expenses in this effort, our business, operating results and financial condition will be materially and adversely affected. We anticipate that, as our market becomes increasingly competitive, maintaining and enhancing our brand may become increasingly difficult and expensive. Maintaining and enhancing our brand will depend largely on our ability to be a technology leader and to continue to provide high quality products and services, which we may not do successfully.
People have in the past expressed, and may in the future express, objections to aspects of our products. For example, people have raised privacy concerns relating to the ability of our Gmail email service to match relevant ads to the content of email messages. Some people have also reacted negatively to the fact that our search technology can be used to help people find hateful or derogatory information on the web. Aspects of our future products may raise similar public concerns. Publicity regarding such concerns could harm our brand. In addition, members of the Google Network and other third parties may take actions that could impair the value of our brand. We are aware that third parties, from time to time, use Google and similar variations in their domain names without our approval, and our brand may be harmed if users and advertisers associate these domains with us.
Proprietary document formats may limit the effectiveness of our search technology by preventing our technology from accessing the content of documents in such formats which could limit the effectiveness of our products and services.
An increasing amount of information on the Internet is provided in proprietary document formats such as Microsoft Word. The providers of the software application used to create these documents could engineer the document format to prevent or interfere with our ability to access the document contents with our search technology. This would mean that the document contents would not be included in our search results even if the contents were directly relevant to a search. These types of activities could assist our competitors or diminish the value of our search results. The software providers may also seek to require us to pay them royalties in exchange for giving us the ability to search documents in their format. If the software provider also competes with us in the search business, they may give their search technology a preferential ability to search documents in their proprietary format. Any of these results could harm our brand and our operating results.
New technologies could block our ads, which would harm our business.
Technologies may be developed that can block the display of our ads. Most of our revenues are derived from fees paid to us by advertisers in connection with the display of ads on web pages. As a result, ad-blocking technology could, in the future, adversely affect our operating results.
Our corporate culture has contributed to our success, and if we cannot maintain this culture as we grow, we could lose the innovation, creativity and teamwork fostered by our culture, and our business may be harmed.
We believe that a critical contributor to our success has been our corporate culture, which we believe fosters innovation, creativity and teamwork. As our organization grows, and we are required to implement more complex organizational management structures, we may find it increasingly difficult to maintain the beneficial aspects of our corporate culture. This could negatively impact our future success. In addition, our initial public offering has created disparities in wealth among Google employees, which may adversely impact relations among employees and our corporate culture in general.
Our intellectual property rights are valuable, and any inability to protect them could reduce the value of our products, services and brand.
Our patents, trademarks, trade secrets, copyrights and all of our other intellectual property rights are important assets for us. There are events that are outside of our control that pose a threat to our intellectual property rights. For example, effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country in which our products and services are distributed or made available through the Internet. Also, the efforts we have taken to protect our proprietary rights may not be sufficient or effective. Any significant impairment of our intellectual property rights could harm our business or our ability to compete. Also, protecting our intellectual property rights is costly and time consuming. Any increase in the unauthorized use of our intellectual property could make it more expensive to do business and harm our operating results.
Although we seek to obtain patent protection for our innovations, it is possible we may not be able to protect some of these innovations. In addition, given the costs of obtaining patent protection, we may choose not to protect certain innovations that later turn out to be important. Furthermore, there is always the possibility, despite our efforts, that the scope of the protection gained will be insufficient or that an issued patent may be deemed invalid or unenforceable.
We also face risks associated with our trademarks. For example, there is a risk that the word Google could become so commonly used that it becomes synonymous with the word search. If this happens, we could lose protection for this trademark, which could result in other people using the word Google to refer to their own products, thus diminishing our brand.
We also seek to maintain certain intellectual property as trade secrets. The secrecy could be compromised by third parties, or intentionally or accidentally by our employees, which would cause us to lose the competitive advantage resulting from these trade secrets.
We are, and may in the future be, subject to intellectual property rights claims, which are costly to defend, could require us to pay damages and could limit our ability to use certain technologies in the future.
Companies in the Internet, technology and media industries own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. As we face increasing competition, the possibility of intellectual property rights claims against us grows. Our technologies may not be able to withstand any third-party claims or rights against their use. Any intellectual property claims, with or without merit, could be time-consuming, expensive to litigate or settle and could divert management resources and attention. In addition, many of our agreements with members of our Google Network require us to indemnify these members for certain third-party intellectual property infringement claims, which would increase our costs as a result of defending such claims and may require that we pay damages if there were an adverse ruling in any such claims. An adverse determination also could prevent us from offering our products and services to others and may require that we procure substitute products or services for these members.
With respect to any intellectual property rights claim, we may have to pay damages or stop using technology found to be in violation of a third partys rights. We may have to seek a license for the technology, which may not be available on reasonable terms and may significantly increase our operating expenses. The technology also may not be available for license to us at all. As a result, we may also be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, which could require significant effort and expense. If we cannot license or develop technology for the infringing aspects of our business, we may be forced to limit our product and service offerings and may be unable to compete effectively. Any of these results could harm our brand and operating results.
From time to time, we receive notice letters from patent holders alleging that certain of our products and services infringe their patent rights. Some of these have resulted in litigation against us. Companies have also filed trademark infringement and related claims against us over the display of ads in response to user queries that include trademark terms. The outcomes of these lawsuits have differed from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Courts in France have held us liable for allowing advertisers to select certain trademarked terms as keywords. We are appealing those
decisions. We were also subject to two lawsuits in Germany on similar matters where the courts held that we are not liable for the actions of our advertisers prior to notification of trademark rights. We are litigating or have recently litigated similar issues in other cases in the U.S., France, Germany and Italy.
In order to provide users with more useful ads, last year we revised our trademark policy in the U.S. and Canada. Under our revised policy, we no longer disable ads due to selection by our advertisers of trademarks as keyword triggers for the ads. We are currently defending this policy in several trademark infringement lawsuits in the United States. Defending these lawsuits is consuming time and resources. Adverse results in these lawsuits may result in, or even compel, a change in this practice which could result in a loss of revenue for us, which could harm our business.
We have also been notified by third parties that they believe features of certain of our products, including Google WebSearch, Google News and Google Image Search, violate their copyrights. Generally speaking, any time that we have a product or service that links to or hosts material in which others allege to own copyrights, we face the risk of being sued for copyright infringement or related claims. Because these products and services comprise the majority of our products and services, the risk of potential harm from such lawsuits is substantial.
Expansion into international markets is important to our long-term success, and our inexperience in the operation of our business outside the U.S. increases the risk that our international expansion efforts will not be successful.
We opened our first office outside the U.S. in 2001 and have only limited experience with operations outside the U.S. Expansion into international markets requires management attention and resources. In addition, we face the following additional risks associated with our expansion outside the U.S.:
|||Challenges caused by distance, language and cultural differences and in doing business with foreign agencies and governments.|
|||Difficulties in developing products and services in different languages and for different cultures.|
|||Longer payment cycles in some countries.|
|||Credit risk and higher levels of payment fraud.|
|||Legal and regulatory restrictions.|
|||Currency exchange rate fluctuations.|
|||Foreign exchange controls that might prevent us from repatriating cash earned in countries outside the U.S.|
|||Political and economic instability and export restrictions.|
|||Potentially adverse tax consequences.|
|||Higher costs associated with doing business internationally.|
These risks could harm our international expansion efforts, which would in turn harm our business and operating results.
We compete internationally with local information providers and with U.S. competitors who are currently more successful than we are in various markets, and if we fail to compete effectively in international markets, our business will be harmed.
We face different market characteristics and competition outside the U.S. In certain markets, other web search, advertising services and Internet companies have greater brand recognition, more users and more search traffic than we have. Even in countries where we have a significant user following, we may not be as successful in generating advertising revenue due to slower market development, our inability to provide attractive local advertising services or other factors. In order to compete, we need to improve our brand recognition and our selling efforts internationally and build stronger relationships with advertisers. We also need to better understand our international users and their preferences. If we fail to do so, our global expansion efforts may be more costly and less profitable than we expect.
Our business may be adversely affected by malicious third-party applications that interfere with, or exploit security flaws in, our products and services.
Our business may be adversely affected by malicious applications that make changes to our users computers and interfere with the Google experience. These applications have in the past attempted, and may in the future attempt, to change our users Internet experience, including hijacking queries to Google.com, altering or replacing Google search results, or otherwise interfering with our ability to connect with our users. The interference often occurs without disclosure to or consent from users, resulting in a negative experience that users may associate with Google. These applications may be difficult or impossible to uninstall or disable, may reinstall themselves and may circumvent other applications efforts to block or remove them. In addition, we offer a number of products and services that our users download to their computers or that they rely on to store information and transmit information to others over the Internet. These products and services are subject to attack by viruses, worms and other malicious software programs, which could jeopardize the security of information stored in a users computer or in our computer systems and networks. The ability to reach users and provide them with a superior experience is critical to our success. If our efforts to combat these malicious applications are unsuccessful, or if our products and services have actual or perceived vulnerabilities, our reputation may be harmed and our user traffic could decline, which would damage our business.
If we fail to detect click-through fraud, we could lose the confidence of our advertisers, thereby causing our business to suffer.
We are exposed to the risk of fraudulent clicks on our ads by persons seeking to increase the advertising fees paid to our Google Network members. We have regularly refunded revenue that our advertisers have paid to us and that was later attributed to click-through fraud, and we expect to do so in the future. Click-through fraud occurs when a person clicks on a Google AdWords ad displayed on a web site in order to generate the revenue share payment to the Google Network member rather than to view the underlying content. If we are unable to stop this fraudulent activity, these refunds may increase. If we find new evidence of past fraudulent clicks we may have to issue refunds retroactively of amounts previously paid to our Google Network members. This would negatively affect our profitability, and these types of fraudulent activities could hurt our brand. If fraudulent clicks are not detected, the affected advertisers may experience a reduced return on their investment in our advertising programs because the fraudulent clicks will not lead to potential revenue for the advertisers. This could lead the advertisers to become dissatisfied with our advertising programs, which could lead to loss of advertisers and revenue.
Index spammers could harm the integrity of our web search results, which could damage our reputation and cause our users to be dissatisfied with our products and services.
There is an ongoing and increasing effort by index spammers to develop ways to manipulate our web search results. For example, because our web search technology ranks a web pages relevance based in part on the importance of the web sites that link to it, people have attempted to link a group of web sites together to manipulate web search results. We take this problem very seriously because providing relevant information to users is critical to our success. If our efforts to combat these and other types of index spamming are unsuccessful, our reputation for delivering relevant information could be diminished. This could result in a decline in user traffic, which would damage our business.
Privacy concerns relating to elements of our technology could damage our reputation and deter current and potential users from using our products and services.
From time to time, concerns may be expressed about whether our products and services compromise the privacy of users and others. Concerns about our collection, use or sharing of personal information or other privacy-related matters, even if unfounded, could damage our reputation and operating results. Recently, several groups have raised privacy concerns in connection with our Gmail free email service which we announced in April 2004 and these concerns have attracted a significant amount of public commentary and attention. The concerns relate principally to the fact that Gmail uses computers to match advertisements to the content of a users email message when email messages are viewed using the Gmail service. Privacy concerns have also arisen with our products that provide improved access to personal information that is already publicly available, but that we have made more readily accessible by the public.
Our business is subject to a variety of U.S. and foreign laws, which could subject us to claims or other remedies based on the nature and content of the information searched or displayed by our products and services, and could limit our ability to provide information regarding regulated industries and products.
The laws relating to the liability of providers of online services for activities of their users are currently unsettled both within the U.S. and abroad. Claims have been threatened and filed under both U.S. and foreign law for defamation, libel, invasion of privacy and other data protection claims, tort, unlawful activity, copyright or trademark infringement, or other theories based on the nature and content of the materials searched and the ads posted or the content generated by our users. From time to time we have received notices from individuals who do not want their names or web sites to appear in our web search results when certain keywords are searched. It is also possible that we could be held liable for misinformation provided over the web when that information appears in our web search results. If one of these complaints results in liability to us, it could be potentially costly, encourage similar lawsuits, distract management and harm our reputation and possibly our business. In addition, increased attention focused on these issues and legislative proposals could harm our reputation or otherwise affect the growth of our business.
The application to us of existing laws regulating or requiring licenses for certain businesses of our advertisers, including, for example, distribution of pharmaceuticals, adult content, financial services, alcohol or firearms, can be unclear. Existing or new legislation could expose us to substantial liability, restrict our ability to deliver services to our users, limit our ability to grow and cause us to incur significant expenses in order to comply with such laws and regulations.
Several other federal laws could have an impact on our business. Compliance with these laws and regulations is complex and may impose significant additional costs on us. For example, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act has provisions that limit, but do not eliminate, our liability for listing or linking to third-party web sites that include materials that infringe copyrights or other rights, so long as we comply with the statutory requirements of this act. The Childrens Online Protection Act and the Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act restrict the distribution of materials considered harmful to children and impose additional restrictions on the ability of online services to collect information from minors. In addition, the Protection of Children from Sexual Predators Act of 1998 requires online service providers to report evidence of violations of federal child pornography laws under certain circumstances. Any failure on our part to comply with these regulations may subject us to additional liabilities.
We also face risks associated with international data protection. The interpretation and application of data protection laws in Europe and elsewhere are still uncertain and in flux. It is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our data practices. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, this could result in an order requiring that we change our data practices, which in turn could have a material effect on our business.
We also face risks from legislation that could be passed in the future. For example, there is a risk that state legislatures will attempt to regulate the automated scanning of email messages in ways that interfere with our Gmail free advertising-supported web mail service that we recently announced as a test service. Any such legislation could make it more difficult for us to operate or could prohibit the aspects of our Gmail service that uses computers to match advertisements to the content of a users email message when email messages are viewed using the service. This could prevent us from implementing the Gmail service in any affected states and impair our ability to compete in the email services market.
If we were to lose the services of Eric, Larry, Sergey or our senior management team, we may not be able to execute our business strategy.
Our future success depends in a large part upon the continued service of key members of our senior management team. In particular, our CEO Eric Schmidt and our founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin are critical to the overall management of Google as well as the development of our technology, our culture and our strategic direction. All of our executive officers and key employees are at-will employees, and we do not maintain any key-person life insurance policies. The loss of any of our management or key personnel could seriously harm our business.
The initial option grants too many of our senior management and key employees are fully vested. Therefore, these employees may not have sufficient financial incentive to stay with us, we may have to incur costs to replace key employees that leave, and our ability to execute our business model could be impaired if we cannot replace departing employees in a timely manner.
Many of our senior management personnel and other key employees have become, or will soon become, substantially vested in their initial stock option grants. While we often grant additional stock options to management personnel and other key employees after their hire dates to provide additional incentives to remain employed by us, their initial grants are usually much larger than follow-on grants. Employees may be more likely to leave us after their initial option grant fully vests, especially if the shares underlying the options have significantly appreciated in value relative to the option exercise price. We have not given any additional stock grants to Eric, Larry or Sergey and Eric, Larry and Sergey are fully vested in their existing grants. If any members of our senior management team leave the company, our ability to successfully operate our business could be impaired. We also may have to incur significant costs in identifying, hiring, training and retaining replacements for departing employees.
We rely on highly skilled personnel and, if we are unable to retain or motivate key personnel or hire qualified personnel, we may not be able to grow effectively.
Our performance is largely dependent on the talents and efforts of highly skilled individuals. Our future success depends on our continuing ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain highly skilled personnel for all areas of our organization. Competition in our industry for qualified employees is intense, and we are aware that certain of our competitors have directly targeted our employees. Our continued ability to compete effectively depends on our ability to attract new employees and to retain and motivate our existing employees.
We have in the past maintained a rigorous, highly selective and time-consuming hiring process. We believe that our approach to hiring has significantly contributed to our success to date. As we grow, our hiring process may prevent us from hiring the personnel we need in a timely manner. In addition, as we become a more mature company, we may find our recruiting efforts more challenging. The incentives to attract, retain and motivate employees provided by our option grants may not be as effective as in the past and our current and future compensation arrangements, which include cash bonuses, may not be successful in attracting new employees and retaining and motivating our existing employees. In addition, we have recently introduced new stock award programs, and under these new programs new employees will be issued a portion of their stock awards in the form of restricted stock units. These restricted stock units will vest based on individual performance, as well as the exercise price of their stock options as compared to that of other employees who started at about the same time. These new stock awards programs may not provide adequate incentives to attract, retain and motivate outstanding performers. If we do not succeed in attracting excellent personnel or retaining or motivating existing personnel, we may be unable to grow effectively.
Our CEO and our two founders run the business and affairs of the company collectively, which may harm their ability to manage effectively.
Eric, our CEO, and Larry and Sergey, our founders and presidents, currently provide leadership to the company as a team. Our bylaws provide that our CEO and our presidents will together have general supervision, direction and
control of the company, subject to the control of our board of directors. As a result, Eric, Larry and Sergey tend to operate the company collectively and to consult extensively with each other before significant decisions are made. This may slow the decision-making process, and a disagreement among these individuals could prevent key strategic decisions from being made in a timely manner. In the event our CEO and our two founders are unable to continue to work well together in providing cohesive leadership, our business could be harmed.
We have a short operating history and a relatively new business model in an emerging and rapidly evolving market. This makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and may increase the risk that we will not continue to be successful.
We first derived revenue from our online search business in 1999 and from our advertising services in 2000, and we have only a short operating history with our cost-per-click advertising model, which we launched in 2002. As a result, we have very little operating history for you to evaluate in assessing our future prospects. Also, we derive nearly all of our revenues from online advertising, which is an immature industry that has undergone rapid and dramatic changes in its short history. You must consider our business and prospects in light of the risks and difficulties we will encounter as an early-stage company in a new and rapidly evolving market. We may not be able to successfully address these risks and difficulties, which could materially harm our business and operating results.
We may have difficulty scaling and adapting our existing architecture to accommodate increased traffic and technology advances or changing business requirements, which could lead to the loss of users, advertisers and Google Network members, and cause us to incur expenses to make architectural changes.
To be successful, our network infrastructure has to perform well and be reliable. The greater the user traffic and the greater the complexity of our products and services, the more computing power we will need. In 2005, we expect to spend substantial amounts to purchase or lease data centers and equipment and to upgrade our technology and network infrastructure to handle increased traffic on our web sites and to roll out new products and services. This expansion is going to be expensive and complex and could result in inefficiencies or operational failures. If we do not implement this expansion successfully, or if we experience inefficiencies and operational failures during the implementation, the quality of our products and services and our users experience could decline. This could damage our reputation and lead us to lose current and potential users, advertisers and Google Network members. The costs associated with these adjustments to our architecture could harm our operating results. Cost increases, loss of traffic or failure to accommodate new technologies or changing business requirements could harm our operating results and financial condition.
We rely on bandwidth providers, data centers or other third parties for key aspects of the process of providing products and services to our users, and any failure or interruption in the services and products provided by these third parties could harm our ability to operate our business and damage our reputation.
We rely on third-party vendors, including data center and bandwidth providers. Any disruption in the network access or co-location services provided by these third-party providers or any failure of these third-party providers to handle current or higher volumes of use could significantly harm our business. Any financial or other difficulties our providers face may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which we cannot predict. We exercise little control over these third party vendors, which increases our vulnerability to problems with the services they provide. We license technology and related databases from third parties to facilitate aspects of our data center and connectivity operations including, among others, Internet traffic management services. We have experienced and expect to continue to experience interruptions and delays in service and availability for such elements. Any errors, failures, interruptions or delays experienced in connection with these third-party technologies and information services could negatively impact our relationship with users and adversely affect our brand and our business and could expose us to liabilities to third parties.
Our systems are also heavily reliant on the availability of electricity, which also comes from third-party providers. If we were to experience a major power outage, we would have to rely on back-up generators. These back-up generators may not operate properly through a major power outage and their fuel supply could also be inadequate during a major power outage. This could result in a disruption of our business.
Interruption or failure of our information technology and communications systems could impair our ability to effectively provide our products and services, which could damage our reputation and harm our operating results.
Our provision of our products and services depends on the continuing operation of our information technology and communications systems. Any damage to or failure of our systems could result in interruptions in our service. Interruptions in our service could reduce our revenues and profits, and our brand could be damaged if people believe our system is unreliable. Our systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, terrorist attacks, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, computer denial of service attacks or other attempts to harm our systems, and similar events. Some of our data centers are located in areas with a high risk of major earthquakes. Our data centers are also subject to break-ins, sabotage and intentional acts of vandalism, and to potential disruptions if the operators of these facilities have financial difficulties. Some of our systems are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities. The occurrence of a natural disaster, a decision to close a facility we are using without adequate notice for financial reasons or other unanticipated problems at our data centers could result in lengthy interruptions in our service.
We have experienced system failures in the past and may in the future. For example, in November 2003 we failed to provide web search results for approximately 20% of our traffic for a period of about 30 minutes. Any unscheduled interruption in our service puts a burden on our entire organization and would result in an immediate loss of revenue. If we experience frequent or persistent system failures on our web sites, our reputation and brand could be permanently harmed. The steps we have taken to increase the reliability and redundancy of our systems are expensive, reduce our operating margin and may not be successful in reducing the frequency or duration of unscheduled downtime.
More individuals are using non-PC devices to access the Internet, and versions of our web search technology developed for these devices may not be widely adopted by users of these devices.
The number of people who access the Internet through devices other than personal computers, including mobile telephones, hand-held calendaring and email assistants, and television set-top devices, has increased dramatically in the past few years. The lower resolution, functionality and memory associated with alternative devices make the use of our products and services through such devices difficult. If we are unable to attract and retain a substantial number of alternative device users to our web search services or if we are slow to develop products and technologies that are more compatible with non-PC communications devices, we will fail to capture a significant share of an increasingly important portion of the market for online services.
Payments to certain of our Google Network members have exceeded the related fees we receive from our advertisers.
We have entered into, and may continue to enter into, minimum fee guarantee agreements with a small number of Google Network members. In these agreements, we promise to make minimum payments to the Google Network member for a pre-negotiated period of time, typically from three months to a year or more. It is difficult to forecast with certainty the fees that we will earn under our agreements, and sometimes the fees we earn fall short of the minimum guarantee payment amounts. Also, increasing competition for arrangements with web sites that are potential Google Network members could result in our entering into more of these minimum fee guarantee agreements under which guaranteed payments exceed the fees we receive from advertisers whose ads we place on those Google Network member sites. In each period to date, the aggregate fees we have earned under these agreements have exceeded the aggregate amounts we have been obligated to pay these Google Network members. However, individual agreements have resulted in guaranteed minimum and other payments to certain Google Network members in excess of the related fees we receive from advertisers. We expect that some individual agreements will continue to result in guaranteed minimum and other payments to certain Google Network members in excess of the related fees we receive from advertisers, which will adversely affect our profitability. However, we expect that the aggregate fees we will earn under agreements with guaranteed minimum and other payments will exceed the aggregate amounts we will be obligated to pay these Google Network members.
To the extent our revenues are paid in foreign currencies, and currency exchange rates become unfavorable, we may lose some of the economic value of the revenues in U.S. dollar terms.
As we expand our international operations, more of our customers may pay us in foreign currencies. Conducting business in currencies other than U.S. dollars subjects us to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. If the currency exchange rates were to change unfavorably, the value of net receivables we receive in foreign currencies and later convert to U.S. dollars after the unfavorable change would be diminished. This could have a negative impact on our reported operating results. Hedging strategies, such as forward contracts, options and foreign exchange swaps related to transaction exposures, that we have implemented or may implement to mitigate this risk may not eliminate our exposure to foreign exchange fluctuations. Additionally, hedging programs expose us to risks that could adversely affect our operating results, including the following:
|||We have limited experience in implementing or operating hedging programs. Hedging programs are inherently risky and we could lose money as a result of poor trades.|
|||We may be unable to hedge currency risk for some transactions because of a high level of uncertainty or the inability to reasonably estimate our foreign exchange exposures.|
|||We may be unable to acquire foreign exchange hedging instruments in some of the geographic areas where we do business, or, where these derivatives are available, we may not be able to acquire enough of them to fully offset our exposure.|
We may have exposure to greater than anticipated tax liabilities.
We are subject to income taxes and non-income taxes in a variety of jurisdictions and our tax structure is subject to review by both domestic and foreign taxation authorities. The determination of our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires significant judgment and in the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Although we believe our estimates are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and may materially affect our financial results in the period or periods for which such determination is made.
We rely on insurance to mitigate some risks and, to the extent the cost of insurance increases or we are unable or choose not to maintain sufficient insurance to mitigate the risks facing our business, our operating results may be diminished.
We contract for insurance to cover certain potential risks and liabilities. In the current environment, insurance companies are increasingly specific about what they will and will not insure. It is possible that we may not be able to get enough insurance to meet our needs, may have to pay very high prices for the coverage we do get or may not be able to acquire any insurance for certain types of business risk. In addition, we have in the past and may in the future choose not to obtain insurance for certain risks facing our business. This could leave us exposed to potential claims. If we were found liable for a significant claim in the future, our operating results could be negatively impacted. Also, to the extent the cost of maintaining insurance increases, our operating results will be negatively affected.
Acquisitions could result in operating difficulties, dilution and other harmful consequences.
We do not have a great deal of experience acquiring companies and the companies we have acquired have been small. We have evaluated, and expect to continue to evaluate, a wide array of potential strategic transactions. From time to time, we may engage in discussions regarding potential acquisitions. Any of these transactions could be material to our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the process of integrating an acquired company, business or technology may create unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures and is risky. The areas where we may face risks include:
|||The need to implement or remediate controls, procedures and policies appropriate for a larger public company at companies that prior to the acquisition lacked these controls, procedures and policies.|
|||Diversion of management time and focus from operating our business to acquisition integration challenges.|
|||Cultural challenges associated with integrating employees from the acquired company into our organization.|
|||Retaining employees from the businesses we acquire.|
|||The need to integrate each companys accounting, management information, human resource and other administrative systems to permit effective management.|
Foreign acquisitions involve unique risks in addition to those mentioned above, including those related to integration of operations across different cultures and languages, currency risks and the particular economic, political and regulatory risks associated with specific countries. Also, the anticipated benefit of many of our acquisitions may not materialize. Future acquisitions or dispositions could result in potentially dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities or amortization expenses, or write-offs of goodwill, any of which could harm our financial condition. Future acquisitions may require us to obtain additional equity or debt financing, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all.
We occasionally become subject to commercial disputes that could harm our business by distracting our management from the operation of our business, by increasing our expenses and, if we do not prevail, by subjecting us to potential monetary damages and other remedies.
From time to time we are engaged in disputes regarding our commercial transactions. These disputes could result in monetary damages or other remedies that could adversely impact our financial position or operations. Even if we prevail in these disputes, they may distract our management from operating our business and the cost of defending these disputes would reduce our operating results.
We have to keep up with rapid technological change to remain competitive in our rapidly evolving industry.
Our future success will depend on our ability to adapt to rapidly changing technologies, to adapt our services to evolving industry standards and to improve the performance and reliability of our services. Our failure to adapt to such changes would harm our business. New technologies and advertising media could adversely affect us. In addition, the widespread adoption of new Internet, networking or telecommunications technologies or other technological changes could require substantial expenditures to modify or adapt our services or infrastructure.
Our business depends on increasing use of the Internet by users searching for information, advertisers marketing products and services and web sites seeking to earn revenue to support their web content. If the Internet infrastructure does not grow and is not maintained to support these activities, our business will be harmed.
Our success will depend on the continued growth and maintenance of the Internet infrastructure. This includes maintenance of a reliable network backbone with the necessary speed, data capacity and security for providing reliable Internet services. Internet infrastructure may be unable to support the demands placed on it if the number of Internet users continues to increase, or if existing or future Internet users access the Internet more often or increase their bandwidth requirements. In addition, viruses, worms and similar programs may harm the performance of the Internet. The Internet has experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of damage to portions of its infrastructure, and it could face outages and delays in the future. These outages and delays could reduce the level of Internet usage as well as our ability to provide our solutions.
We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company.
As a public company, we have incurred and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. We will incur costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. We will also incur costs associated with corporate governance requirements, including requirements under
the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules implemented by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the NASD. We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some activities more time-consuming and costly. We also expect these rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to maintain director and officer liability insurance and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified individuals to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these new rules, and we cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.
Changes in accounting rules for stock-based compensation may adversely affect our operating results, our stock price and our competitiveness in the employee marketplace.
We have a history of using employee stock options and other stock-based compensation to hire, motivate and retain our employees. In December 2004, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 123R, Share-Based Payment, which will require us, starting January 1, 2006, to measure compensation costs for all stock-based compensation (including stock options) at fair value and to recognize these costs as expenses in our statements of income. The recognition of these expenses in our statements of income will have a negative affect on our earnings per share, which could negatively impact our future stock price. In addition, if we reduce or alter our use of stock-based compensation to minimize the recognition of these expenses, our ability to recruit, motivate and retain employees may be impaired, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage in the employee marketplace.
Risks Related to Ownership of our Common Stock
The trading price for our Class A common stock may be volatile.
The trading price of our Class A common stock has been volatile since our initial public offering and will likely continue to be volatile. The trading price of our Class A common stock may fluctuate widely in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include:
|||Quarterly variations in our results of operations or those of our competitors.|
|||Announcements by us or our competitors of acquisitions, new products, significant contracts, commercial relationships or capital commitments.|
|||Disruption to our operations or those of our Google Network members or our data centers.|
|||The emergence of new sales channels in which we are unable to compete effectively.|
|||Our ability to develop and market new and enhanced products on a timely basis.|
|||Commencement of, or our involvement in, litigation.|
|||Any major change in our board or management.|
|||Changes in governmental regulations or in the status of our regulatory approvals.|
|||Recommendations by securities analysts or changes in earnings estimates.|
|||Announcements about our earnings that are not in line with analyst expectations, the likelihood of which is enhanced because it is our policy not to give guidance on earnings.|
|||Announcements by our competitors of their earnings that are not in line with analyst expectations.|
|||The volume of shares of Class A common stock available for public sale.|
|||Short sales, hedging and other derivative transactions on shares of our Class A common stock.|
|||General economic conditions and slow or negative growth of related markets.|
In addition, the stock market in general, and the market for technology companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market and industry factors may seriously harm the market price of our Class A common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. Fluctuations in the trading price of our Class A common stock may be even more pronounced since we only recently completed our initial public offering. In the past, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a companys securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against these companies. This litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our managements attention and resources.
Future sales of shares by us or by our stockholders could cause our stock price to decline.
Our Class A common stock began trading on The Nasdaq National Market on August 19, 2004. We cannot predict the effect, if any, that market sales of shares or the availability of shares for sale will have on the prevailing trading price of our common stock from time to time. There is currently no contractual restriction on our ability to issue additional shares or on our stockholders ability to sell their shares. Our current stockholders hold a substantial percentage of our outstanding common stock and, as of February 14, 2005, are permitted to sell these shares in the public market without restriction. Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock could cause our stock price to fall.
If our involvement in a September 2004 magazine article about Google were held to be in violation of the Securities Act of 1933, we could be required to repurchase securities sold in our initial public offering.
Information about Google has been published in an article appearing in the September 2004 issue of Playboy Magazine and entitled Playboy Interview: Google Guys. The text of the article contains information derived from an interview of Larry and Sergey conducted in April 2004, prior to our initial public offering. The article includes quotations from Larry and Sergey, and has been reprinted by a number of news media outlets. The article presented certain statements about our company in isolation and did not disclose many of the related risks and uncertainties described in the prospectus relating to our initial public offering.
We do not believe that our involvement in the Playboy Magazine article constitutes a violation of Section 5 of the Securities Act of 1933. However, if our involvement were held by a court to be in violation of the Securities Act of 1933, we could be required to repurchase the shares sold to purchasers in our initial public offering at the original purchase price, plus statutory interest from the date of purchase, for a period of one year following the date of the violation. We would contest vigorously any claim that a violation of the Securities Act occurred. The Division of Enforcement of the SEC has confirmed that it will not proceed with any enforcement action against us with respect to the Playboy Magazine article.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividend on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future.
The concentration of our capital stock ownership with our founders, executive officers and our directors and their affiliates will limit your ability to influence corporate matters.
Our Class B common stock has ten votes per share and our Class A common stock has one vote per share. At March 28, 2005 our founders, executive officers and directors (and their affiliates) together owned shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock representing approximately 76.7% of the voting power of our outstanding
capital stock. In particular, at March 28, 2005, our two founders and our CEO, Larry, Sergey and Eric, controlled approximately 75.6% of our outstanding Class B common stock, representing approximately 66.2% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. Larry, Sergey and Eric therefore have significant influence over management and affairs and over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of our company or its assets, for the foreseeable future. In addition, because of this dual class structure, our founders, directors, executives and employees will continue to be able to control all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval even if they come to own less than 50% of the outstanding shares of our common stock. This concentrated control limits your ability to influence corporate matters and, as a result, we may take actions that our stockholders do not view as beneficial. As a result, the market price of our Class A common stock could be adversely affected.
Provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could discourage a takeover that stockholders may consider favorable.
Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. These provisions include the following:
|||Our certificate of incorporation provides for a dual class common stock structure. As a result of this structure our founders, executives and employees have significant influence over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or other sale of our company or its assets. This concentrated control could discourage others from initiating any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transaction that other stockholders may view as beneficial.|
|||Our board of directors has the right to elect directors to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors.|
|||Our stockholders may not act by written consent. As a result, a holder, or holders, controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to take certain actions without holding a stockholders meeting.|
|||Our certificate of incorporation prohibits cumulative voting in the election of directors. This limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates.|
|||Stockholders must provide advance notice to nominate individuals for election to the board of directors or to propose matters that can be acted upon at a stockholders meeting. These provisions may discourage or deter a potential acquiror from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirors own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.|
|||Our board of directors may issue, without stockholder approval, shares of undesignated preferred stock. The ability to issue undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to acquire us.|
As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to certain Delaware anti-takeover provisions. Under Delaware law, a corporation may not engage in a business combination with any holder of 15% or more of its capital stock unless the holder has held the stock for three years or, among other things, the board of directors has approved the transaction. Our board of directors could rely on Delaware law to prevent or delay an acquisition of us.
* * * * *
We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the Shares. All proceeds from the sale of the Shares will be for the account of the Selling Stockholders, as described below. See Selling Stockholders and Plan of Distribution described below.
None of the Selling Stockholders is an executive officer or director of Google. The Selling Stockholders do not beneficially own, individually or in the aggregate, more than 1% of the outstanding Class A common stock of Google prior to this offering. The following table shows the names of the Selling Stockholders and the number of Shares to be sold by them pursuant to this Prospectus:
|Shares Beneficially Owned
Prior to Offering
|Shares Beneficially Owned
Fabrizio Milano DAragona
We have been advised by the Selling Stockholders that they intend to sell all or a portion of the Shares from time to time in the over-the-counter market and that sales will be made at prices prevailing in the public market at the times of such sales. The Selling Stockholders may also make private sales directly or through a broker or brokers, who may act as agent or as principal. Further, the Selling Stockholders may choose to dispose of the Shares by gift to a third party or as a donation to a charitable or other non-profit entity. In connection with any sales, the Selling Stockholders and any brokers participating in such sales may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act.
Any broker dealer participating in such transactions as agent may receive commissions from the Selling Stockholders (and, if such broker acts as agent for the purchaser of such Shares, from such purchaser). Usual and customary brokerage fees will be paid by the Selling Stockholders. Broker dealers may agree with the Selling Stockholders to sell a specified number of Shares at a stipulated price per share, and, to the extent such a broker dealer is unable to do so acting as agent for the Selling Stockholders, to purchase as principal any unsold Shares at the price required to fulfill the broker dealer commitment to the Selling Stockholders. Broker-dealers who acquire Shares as principal may thereafter resell such Shares from time to time in transactions (which may involve crosses and block transactions and which may involve sales to and through other broker dealers, including transactions of the nature described above) in the over the counter market, in negotiated transactions or otherwise at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at negotiated prices, and in connection with such resales may pay to or receive from the purchasers of such Shares commissions computed as described above.
We have advised the Selling Stockholders that the anti-manipulative rules of Regulation M under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act) may apply to sales in the market and has informed them of the possible need for delivery of copies of this Prospectus. The Selling Stockholders may indemnify any broker dealer that participates in transactions involving the sale of the Shares against certain liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act. Any commissions paid or any discounts or concessions allowed to any such broker dealers, and, if any such broker dealers purchase Shares as principal, any profits received on the resale of such Shares, may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act.
If applicable, upon our being notified by the Selling Stockholders that any material arrangement has been entered into with a broker-dealer for the sale of Shares through a cross or block trade, a supplemental prospectus will be filed under Rule 424(c) under the Securities Act, setting forth the name of the participating broker-dealer(s), the number of Shares involved, the price at which such Shares were sold by the Selling Stockholders, the commissions paid or discounts or concessions allowed by the Selling Stockholders to such broker dealer(s), and, where applicable, that such broker-dealer(s) did not conduct any investigation to verify the information set out in this Prospectus. Any securities covered by this Prospectus that qualify for sale pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act may be sold under that Rule rather than pursuant to this Prospectus. There can be no assurance that the Selling Stockholders will sell any or all of the Shares offered hereunder.
* * * * *
The validity of the Shares of Class A common stock offered hereby will be passed upon by Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation, Palo Alto, California, counsel to Google.
The consolidated financial statements of Google Inc. appearing in Google Inc.s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2004 (including the schedule appearing therein), have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The following documents filed with the Commission are hereby incorporated by reference in this Prospectus:
|||Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2004, filed with the Commission on March 30, 2005.|
|||Our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Commission on January 13, 2005.|
|||Our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Commission on February 1, 2005.|
|||Our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Commission on February 18, 2005.|
|||Our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Commission on March 23, 2005.|
|||Our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Commission on April 21, 2005.|
|||The description of our common stock contained in Googles Registration Statement on Form 10 as filed with the Commission on July 7, 2004 pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and effective as of June 28, 2004.|
All reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this Prospectus and prior to the termination of this offering shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this Prospectus and to be part hereof from the date of filing of such reports and other documents.
Google hereby undertakes to provide without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this Prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request of any such person, a copy of any and all of the information that has been or may be incorporated by reference in this Prospectus, other than exhibits to such documents. Requests for such copies should be directed to our Investor Relations department, at the following address:
1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
Mountain View, CA 94043
We file annual, quarterly and special reports and other information with the Commission. You may read and copy and documents we file at the Commissions Public Reference Room at 450 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the Commission at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public Commissions website at http://www.sec.gov.
Our Internet address is www.google.com and the investor relations section of our website is located at http://investor.google.com. We make available free of charge, on or through the investor relations section of our website, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Commission.
You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this Prospectus and in any accompanying prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this Prospectus. The shares of Class A common stock offered under this Prospectus are offered only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this Prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this Prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this Prospectus or any sale of the Class A common stock.
This Prospectus constitutes a part of a Registration Statement we filed with the Commission under the Securities Act. This Prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the Registration Statement, certain parts of which are omitted in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Commission. For further information with respect to Google and the Shares, reference is hereby made to the Registration Statement. The Registration Statement may be inspected at the public reference facilities maintained by the Commission at the addresses set forth in the preceding paragraph. Statements contained herein concerning any document filed as an exhibit are not necessarily complete, and, in each instance, reference is made to the copy of such document filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement. Each such statement is qualified in its entirety by such reference.
* * * * *
No person is authorized in connection with any offering made by this Prospectus to give any information or to make any representations not contained in this Prospectus, and, if given or made, such information or representations must not be relied upon as having been authorized by Google, any Selling Stockholder or by any other person. This Prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any security other than the Shares offered hereby, nor does it constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any of the Shares offered hereby to any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation. Neither the delivery of this Prospectus nor any sale of or offer to sell the Shares made hereunder shall under any circumstances create any implication that there has been no change in the affairs of Google since the date hereof or that the information contained herein is correct as of any time subsequent to the date hereof.
Class A Common Stock
April 27, 2005
REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON FORM S-8/S-3
INFORMATION REQUIRED IN REGISTRATION STATEMENT
Item 3. Incorporation of Documents by Reference.
The following documents and information previously filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the Commission) by Google Inc. are hereby incorporated by reference in this Registration Statement:
|||Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2004, filed with the Commission on March 30, 2005.|
|||Our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Commission on January 13, 2005.|
|||Our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Commission on February 1, 2005.|
|||Our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Commission on February 18, 2005.|
|||Our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Commission on March 23, 2005.|
|||Our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Commission on April 21, 2005.|
|||The description of our common stock contained in Googles Registration Statement on Form 10 as filed with the Commission on July 7, 2004 pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act) and effective as of June 28, 2004.|
All documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act, prior to the filing of a post-effective amendment which indicates that all securities registered have been sold or which deregisters all securities then remaining unsold, shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this Registration Statement and to be part hereof from the date of filing of such documents.
Item 4. Description of Securities.
Item 5. Interests of Named Experts and Counsel.
The validity of the securities being registered by this Registration Statement will be passed upon by Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, Professional Corporation, Palo Alto, California. Certain members of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati, and investment partnerships of which such persons are partners, beneficially own less than 1 percent of the Companys Class A common stock.
Item 6. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporations board of directors to grant, indemnity to officers, directors and other corporate agents in terms sufficiently broad to permit such indemnification under certain circumstances and subject to certain limitations.
As permitted by Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, the registrants amended and restated certificate of incorporation includes a provision that eliminates the personal liability of its directors for monetary damages for breach of their fiduciary duty as directors.
In addition, as permitted by Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, the bylaws of the registrant provide that:
|||The registrant shall indemnify its directors and officers for serving the registrant in those capacities or for serving other business enterprises at the registrants request, to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the registrant, and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such persons conduct was unlawful.|
|||The registrant may, in its discretion, indemnify employees and agents in those circumstances where indemnification is not required by law.|
|||The registrant is required to advance expenses, as incurred, to its directors and officers in connection with defending a proceeding, except that such director or officer shall undertake to repay such advances if it is ultimately determined that such person is not entitled to indemnification.|
|||The registrant will not be obligated pursuant to the bylaws to indemnify a person with respect to proceedings initiated by that person, except with respect to proceedings authorized by the registrants board of directors or brought to enforce a right to indemnification.|
|||The rights conferred in the bylaws are not exclusive, and the registrant is authorized to enter into indemnification agreements with its directors, officers, employees and agents and to obtain insurance to indemnify such persons.|
|||The registrant may not retroactively amend the bylaw provisions to reduce its indemnification obligations to directors, officers, employees and agents.|
The registrants policy is to enter into separate indemnification agreements with each of its directors and executive officers that provide the maximum indemnity allowed to directors and executive officers by Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law and which allow for certain additional procedural protections. The registrant also maintains directors and officers insurance to insure such persons against certain liabilities.
The Investor Rights Agreement between the registrant and certain investors provides for cross-indemnification in connection with registration of the registrants common stock on behalf of such investors.
These indemnification provisions and the indemnification agreements entered into between the registrant and its officers and directors may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of the registrants officers and directors for liabilities (including reimbursement of expenses incurred) arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (Securities Act).
Item 7. Exemption from Registration Claimed.
The shares being offered by this Forms S-8/S-3 resale prospectus were issued in transactions without registration under the Securities Act in reliance on the provisions of Regulation S. The recipients of securities in each such transaction represented their intention to acquire the securities for investment only and not with a view to or for sale in connection with any distribution thereof and appropriate legends were affixed to the share certificates and instruments issued in such transactions. All recipients had adequate access, through their relationship with the registrant or otherwise, to information about the registrant.
Item 8. Exhibits.
Location of Exhibit incorporated by reference herein
|1998 Stock Plan, as amended, and form of stock option agreement||Registration Statement on Form S-l, as amended (File No. 333-114984) as Exhibit 10.02||April 29, 2004|
|2003 Stock Plan, as amended, and form of stock option agreement||Registration Statement on Form S-l, as amended (File No. 333-114984) as Exhibit 10.05||April 29, 2004|
|2003 Stock Plan (No. 2) and form of stock option agreement||Registration Statement on Form S-l, as amended (File No. 333-114984) as Exhibit 10.06||April 29, 2004|
|2003 Stock Plan (No. 3) and form of stock option agreement||Registration Statement on Form S-l, as amended (File No. 333-114984) as Exhibit 10.07||April 29, 2004|
|Opinion of counsel|
|Consent of counsel (contained in Exhibit 5.01)|
|Consent of Ernst & Young LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm|
|Power of Attorney (included as part of the signature page of this registration statement)|
Item 9. Undertakings.
(a) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:
(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post effective amendment to this registration statement to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.
(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3) To remove from registration by means of a post effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(b) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the Registrants annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plans annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
* * * * *
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-8/S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Mountain View, State of California, on this 27th day of April 2005.
/s/ Eric Schmidt.
|Title:||Chief Executive Officer|
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Eric Schmidt and George Reyes, and each of them acting individually, as his attorney in fact, each with full power of substitution, for him in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this Registration Statement on Form S-8/S-3, and to file the same, with exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact, or his or her substitutes, may do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed on the 27th day of April 2005 by the following persons in the capacities indicated:
/s/ Eric Schmidt
|Chairman of the Executive Committee and Chief Executive Officer (Principal Executive Officer)||April 27, 2005|
/s/ George Reyes
|Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)||April 27, 2005|
/s/ Sergey Brin
|President of Technology, Assistant Secretary and Director||April 27, 2005|
/s/ Larry Page
|President of Products, Assistant Secretary and Director||April 27, 2005|
/s/ L. John Doerr
L. John Doerr
|April 27, 2005|
/s/ K. Ram Shriram
K. Ram Shriram
|April 27, 2005|
/s/ John L. Hennessy
John L. Hennessy
|April 27, 2005|
/s/ Arthur D. Levinson
Arthur D. Levinson
|April 27, 2005|
/s/ Paul S. Otellini
Paul S. Otellini
|April 27, 2005|
REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON FORM S-8/S-3
INDEX TO EXHIBITS
Location of Exhibit incorporated by reference herein
|4.01||1998 Stock Plan, as amended, and form of stock option agreement||Registration Statement on Form S-l, as amended (File No. 333-114984) as Exhibit 10.02||April 29, 2004|
|4.04||2003 Stock Plan, as amended, and form of stock option agreement||Registration Statement on Form S-l, as amended (File No. 333-114984) as Exhibit 10.05||April 29, 2004|
|4.05||2003 Stock Plan (No. 2) and form of stock option agreement||Registration Statement on Form S-l, as amended (File No. 333-114984) as Exhibit 10.06||April 29, 2004|
|4.06||2003 Stock Plan (No. 3) and form of stock option agreement||Registration Statement on Form S-l, as amended (File No. 333-114984) as Exhibit 10.07||April 29, 2004|
|5.01||Opinion of counsel|
|23.01||Consent of counsel (contained in Exhibit 5.01)|
|23.02||Consent of Ernst & Young LLP, Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm|
|24.01||Power of Attorney (included as part of the signature page of this registration statement)|